Global economic conditions drive demand for food and agricultural products, providing the foundation for U.S. agricultural trade. Therefore the composition and pattern of U.S. agricultural exports and imports shift to reflect changes in trade polices, world population, income and economic growth. Other factors affecting U.S. agricultural trade are global supplies and prices, changes in exchange rates and government support for agriculture.
ERS's Outputs on U.S. Agricultural Trade
ERS provides a range of data products and reports covering U.S. agricultural trade and various factors affecting trade flows.
Periodic, scheduled, reports and data include:
- Foreign agricultural trade of the United States (FATUS) data provide U.S. agricultural exports and imports, volume and value, by country and by commodity. Updated monthly or annually.
- Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade forecasts U.S. agricultural exports and imports for the upcoming fiscal year, by country and sector. The Outlook is also summarized online in the corresponding long form content piece.
- State Exports data provide estimates of annual U.S. agricultural export values by State and commodity.
- Agricultural Trade Multipliers provide estimates of employment and/or output effects of trade in farm and food products on the U.S. economy. These effects, when expressed as multipliers, reflect the amount of economic activity and/or jobs generated by agricultural exports.
- USDA Agricultural Projections: USDA's 10-year projections for the food and agriculture sector include expected U.S. agricultural trade by commodity group.
- U.S. Export share of Production, Import Share of Consumption (2008-2014)The data include the share of U.S. agricultural production, by value, sold outside the country, and the share of imports in total domestic food consumption by value.
- U.S. Food Imports data provides import values of edible products (food and beverages) entering U.S. ports and their origin of shipment. Food and beverage import values are compiled by calendar year into food groups corresponding to major commodities or level of processing.
In addition to the periodic Outlook report and data products, ERS publishes reports analyzing trade to a particular trade or region and and key factors affecting trade flows.
Other recent reports relating to U.S. agricultural trade
- Opportunities for Making U.S.-Mexico Agricultural Trade More Agile To explore ways of facilitating border crossing and inspection for U.S.-Mexico agricultural trade, an ERS research team conducted about 80 interviews with experts from the private sector, government, and academia from both countries.
- The Global Landscape of Agricultural Trade, 1995-2014 This report surveys 20 years (1995-2014) of trends in world agricultural trade and summarizes key policy issues that will confront decision makers and shape agricultural trade in the coming years.
- Tariff Reforms and the Competitiveness of U.S. Beef in Japan Japan is one of the largest beef importing countries in the world and an important destination market for the United States. This report examines how Japanese importers view U.S. beef vis-a-vis imports from Australia and other countries, how imports differ across beef products, and how market access reform might affect Japanese beef imports.
- Global Macroeconomic Developments Drive Downturn in U.S. Agricultural Exports The macroeconomic outlook underlying the 2016 USDA agricultural projections indicates a slowdown in global income growth and a stronger dollar, implying smaller projected gains in agricultural trade and declines in U.S. market share.
- Poultry Production and Trade in the Republic of South Africa: a Look at Alternative Trade Policy Scenarios In 2015, South Africa changed a 15-year policy that effectively blocked all poultry imports from the United States and allowed a quota of 65,000 tons of U.S. poultry at a tariff rate of 37 percent. ERS used the 2016 baseline model to analyze the impact of this change. Findings suggest that longrun impacts on the South African poultry industry will be minimal.
- Estimating the Effects of Selected Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade on U.S.-EU Agricultural Trade The report found that non-tariff measures, such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade, are significant impediments to agriculture trade in selected commodities between the United States and the European Union.
- Brazil's Corn Industry and the Effect on the Seasonal Pattern of U.S. Corn Exports Brazil has emerged as the largest U.S. competitor in the global corn market with second-crop corn, harvested late in the local marketing year, boosting exports from September to January. A change in export seasonality could alter the seasonality of U.S. corn prices, further weakening corn prices at harvest and eroding U.S. export market share.
- U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present and Possible Future Establishing more normal economic relations with Cuba could potentially generate growth in U.S.-Cuba trade, foster greater productivity in Cuba's economy, and stimulate exports of meat, dairy products, rice, and other commodities to Cuba.
- China's Growing Demand for Agricultural Imports China is heavily importing land-intensive agricultural products such as oilseeds, oil, and cotton, and the United States has become the leading supplier of China's agricultural imports.