Broad Assessments of NAFTA's Impacts and Regional Trade
Fruit and Vegetables
Livestock, Meat, and Dairy
Sugar and Sweeteners
Other Commodities and Industries
Domestic Agricultural and Food Policies
The North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act required the Secretary of Agriculture to report to the U.S. Congress from 1997 to 2011 about the effects of NAFTA on U.S. agricultural producers and rural communities. ERS was the principal USDA agency involved in the preparation of these reports, which are listed below among other ERS assessments of the agreement.
- NAFTA at 20: North America's Free-Trade Area and Its Impact on Agriculture . (February 2015).
- NAFTA at 17: Full Implementation Leads to Increased Trade and Integration . (March 2011).
- NAFTA at 15: Building on Free Trade . March 2009.
- NAFTA at 13: Implementation Nears Completion . March 2007.
- Canada: A Macroeconomic Study of the United States' Most Important Trade Partner . September 2006.
- North America Moves Toward One Market. Amber Waves, June 2005.
- NAFTA at 11: The Growing Integration of North American Agriculture . February 2005.
- Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System?. Amber Waves, June 2004.
- U.S. Agriculture and the Free Trade Area of the Americas. March 2004.
- International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns . October 2003.
- North American Agricultural Market Integration and Its Impact on the Food and Fiber System . September 2003.
- Multilateralism and Regionalism: Dual Strategies for Trade Reform. Amber Waves, September 2003
- NAFTA's Impacts on U.S. Agriculture: Trade and Beyond. October 2002.
- Effects of North American Free Trade Agreement on Agriculture and the Rural Economy . Agriculture and Trade Report, August 2002.
- Increased U.S. Imports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables. see Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook: September 2007 , September 2007.
- North American Greenhouse Tomatoes Emerge as a Major Market Force. Amber Waves, April 2005.
- Greenhouse Tomatoes Change the Dynamics of the North American Fresh Tomato Industry . April 2005.
- Global Trade Patterns in Fruits and Vegetables . June 2004.
- Mexico's Changing Marketing System for Fresh Produce: Emerging Markets, Practices, Trends, and Issues. USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, October 2002.
- U.S.-Mexico Corn Trade During the NAFTA Era: New Twists to an Old Story . May 2004.
- Canada's Agriculture: 5 Years After the End of Transportation Subsidies. May 2001.
- U.S.-Canada Wheat Trade: The Intersection of Geography and Economics. June-July 1999.
- Market Integration of the North American Animal Products Complex . May 2005.
- U.S.-Canadian Hog Trade: Market Integration at Work. Amber Waves, February 2005.
- Market Integration in the North American Hog Industries . November 2004.
- Live Cattle Exports from Mexico into the United States. Choices, First Quarter 2004.
- Structure of the Global Markets for Meat . September 2003.
- U.S.-Mexico Broiler Trade: A Bird's Eye View . December 2002.
- Canada's Subsidized Dairy Exports: The Issue of WTO Compliance. August 2001.
- U.S.-Mexico Cattle Industries Becoming More Integrated. July 2000 (see page 29 of document).
- Mexico's Pork Industry Structure Shifting to Large Operations in the 1990s. September 1999.
- The United States and Mexico Resolve Sugar Dispute. September 2006.
- "Mexico Overview," May 2006 (see Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook: May 2006 ).
- U.S.-Mexico Sweetener Trade Mired in Dispute. Agricultural Outlook, September 1999.
- A Revolution in Food Retailing Underway in the Asia-Pacific Region. Amber Waves, June 2006.
- Transportation Bottlenecks Shape U.S.-Mexico Food and Agricultural Trade. September 2000.
- Trade Liberalization: International Trade Agreements Bring Adjustment to the Textile and Apparel Industries. Rural Conditions and Trends, June 2000.
- Pesticide Price Differentials Between Canada and the U.S. commissioned report, Fall 1999.
- U.S. Firms Invest in Mexico's Processed Food Industry. Food Review, May 1999.
- Mexican Supermarkets Spur New Produce Distribution System. August 1998.
- A Comparison of Household Food Security in Canada and the United States . December 2008.
- Recent Agricultural Policy Reforms in North America . April 2005.
- A Comparison of Food Assistance Programs in Mexico and the United States . July 2000.
Official North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Documents
- Text of NAFTA.
- North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation.
- North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation.
- Understanding Between the Parties to the NAFTA Concerning Chapter Eight - Emergency Action.
- NAFTA's tariff schedules (Annex 302.2) may be found in Message from the President of the United States Transmitting North American Free Trade Agreement, Texts of Agreement, Implementing Bill, Statement of Administrative Action and Required Supporting Statements, 103d Congress, 1st Session, House Document 103-159, Volume 2, November 4, 1993.
- USMCA Secretariat. Contains information on the dispute settlement proceedings, legal texts and panel decisions and reports respecting the Agreement.
- North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. International organization created to implement NAFTA's side agreement on the environment.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs. International organization created to implement NAFTA's side agreement on labor.
- Fruit and Vegetable Dispute Resolution Corporation. Private, nonprofit organization created in pursuit of Article 707 of NAFTA to facilitate the resolution of disputes within the North American produce industry.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
- Foreign Agricultural Service. Country and commodity information, Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN).
- Information on Free Trade Agreements. Information on the free trade agreements the United States has completed or is in the process of negotiating with several countries and regions.
- World Agricultural Outlook Board. Supply and demand estimates, weather and climate.
Other U.S. Government
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). World Factbook.
- Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The Effects of NAFTA on U.S.-Mexican Trade and GDP.
- Department of Commerce
- International Trade Commission (ITC). Reports and publications concerning USMCA and antidumping and countervailing duty investigations.
- Office of the United States Trade Representative(USTR).
- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Canadian agriculture, environment and sustainability, finance and economics, markets and trade, and research and innovation.
- Global Affairs Canada. Trade negotiations and agreements, dispute settlement, export and import controls, and trade policy.
- Statistics Canada. International trade data.
- Secretaría de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural (SADER—Secretariat of Agriculture and Rural Development). Mexican equivalent to USDA. Data, activities of secretariat, and policies.
- Apoyos y Servicios a la Comercialización Agropecuaria (ASERCA—Supports and Services for Agricultural Marketing). Administers marketing supports and direct payments to producers. Program information.
- Servicio de Información y Estadística Agroalimentaria y Pesquera (SIAP—Agri-food and Fishing Information and Statistics Service). Similar to USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. Production data, presentations from Mexican outlook fora, and other agricultural information.
- Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Rural Sustentable y la Soberanía Alimentaria (CEDRSSA—Center of Studies for Sustainable Rural Development and Food Sovereignty). Research center located within the Mexican Chamber of Deputies (similar to U.S. House of Representatives). Data, activities of center, and publications.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI—National Institute of Statistics and Geography). Centralized statistical entity, similar to U.S. Bureau of the Census. Wide variety of economic data.
- Secretaría de Economía (SE—Secretariat of Economy). Cabinet-level secretariat with similar responsibilities as U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. International Trade Commission, and Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Trade data, trade agreements, antidumping and countervailing duty cases.
- Sistema Nacional de Información e Integración de Mercados (SNIIM—National System of Market Information and Integration). Database containing Mexican price data for various commodities.
- Banco de México (Bank of Mexico). Mexico's central bank. Macroeconomic data.
- Fideicomisos Instituidos en Relación con la Agricultura (FIRA—Funds Instituted in Relation to Agriculture). Financial and technical support institution integrated by four government trust funds geared to promote the agricultural and fishing sectors. Economic analysis and program information.
- CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). Agricultural information.
- Inter-American Development Bank. Research and statistics by country.
- International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- Organization of American States (OAS).
- Foreign Trade Information System (SICE—Sistema de Información al Comercio Exterior).
- Extensive compilation of materials about NAFTA and other trade agreements involving OAS members.
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Economic surveys and data.
- United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
- FAOSTAT. Data on production, trade, food balance sheets, fertilizer and pesticides, land use and irrigation, forest and fishery products, population, agricultural machinery, and food aid shipments.
- United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Statistical yearbook, economic survey.
- World Bank. Lessons from NAFTA for Latin America and the Caribbean.
- World Trade Organization (WTO). Trade topics, including dispute settlements.
- El Colegio de México. Encuesta Nacional de Hogares Rurales de México (ENHRUM). Research effort to obtain nationally representative panel data on rural households in Mexico, with a focus on production, income, rural migration, and domestic work, among other topics.
- Princeton University, Mexican Migration Project. Research effort by investigators at Princeton and Universidad de Guadalajara about Mexican migration to the United States. Data sets.
- Texas A&M University, Agricultural and Food Policy Center. Publications and models.
- Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (Autonomous University of Chapingo). Prominent Mexican agricultural university. Many products from research centers available online.
- Universidad de Guadalajara. Integrated Evaluation of the Impact and Implementation of NAFTA's Agricultural Chapter (in Spanish).
- Farm Foundation. Numerous USMCA-related materials in the trade section.