Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The history of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into three categories: Current, Recent, and Historical estimates. Cost-of Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops.

Note: The procedure used to update the opportunity cost of land in all crop production cost and return accounts was changed in the October 1, 2013 update. Changes in cropland cash rents, reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, were used to adjust the land cost from the survey to the update year. This procedure is an improvement over changes in the general land cash rent index that was previously used. The new procedure was implemented for the land cost estimate of each commodity from the most recent survey year of the commodity through the most recent update. 

Also see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Data
Current Costs and Returns: All commodities
Corn: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Soybeans: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Wheat: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Cotton: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Rice: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Grain Sorghum: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Barley: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Oats: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Peanuts: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Milk: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Hogs: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Hogs (Farrow-to-Finish): 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Hogs (Farrow-to-Feeder): 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Hogs (Feeder-to-Finish): 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Hogs (other): 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Cow-calf: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Basin and Range: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 2003-06 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.:1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1995-2002, 2003-10 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1995-2002 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1995-2002 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 2003-10 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Basin and Range: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 2005-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 2005-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 2005-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2005-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 2005-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 2000-07 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Great Lakes: 2000-07 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Great Plains: 2000-07 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northwest: 2000-07 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2004-12, 2013-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2009-14 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, other
U.S.: 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2015-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Cow-calf
U.S.: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Heartland: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Basin and Range: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1996-2007, 2008-16 10/2/2017 5/1/2018
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1989-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Delta: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-88 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Delta: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Delta: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Northeast: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Great Plains: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Northeast: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
North Central: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Great Plains: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
North Central: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Great Plains: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Northeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
North Central: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Great Plains: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2017F-2018F 6/21/2017 12/14/2017