Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The history of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into three categories: Current, Recent, and Historical estimates. Cost-of-Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops. Also see Organic Costs and Returns for corn, milk, wheat, and soy.

Note: The most recent milk costs and returns are the first estimates developed from the 2016 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) dairy data. The estimates replace those previously reported for 2016 and 2017 that were set by indexing the 2010 ARMS dairy data for annual price changes. In addition, revisions have been made to the purchased and homegrown feed cost estimates for 2011 through 2015. After reviewing the 2016 survey data, it appears likely that the method used to index the 2010 dairy feed costs did not provide the best reflection of how these costs moved during years between the 2010 and 2016 surveys. To address this issue, purchased feed cost estimates for 2011-15 were re-estimated by applying changes in the prices paid index for feed grains (published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service) to the 2010 survey data. Homegrown feed costs were re-estimated using changes in the prices paid index for hay and forages. Moving forward, these indexes will be used to set the milk feed costs using the 2016 ARMS data.

Also, see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.

NEW! Commodity Costs and Returns data for crops are now only available in pivot tables and machine-readable sheets.

Errata: On October 2, 2018, incorrect milk cost and return data for the Southern Seaboard region were posted for 2017 in the ERS topic page Commodity Costs and Returns. On October 12, 2018, incorrect milk feed cost data for the Southern Seaboard region were posted for 2011-15 in the ERS topic page Commodity Costs and Returns. The U.S. average and other regional estimates were unaffected by these errors. The data have been revised and new files have been posted.


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Data
Current Costs and Returns
Milk: 2016-17 10/12/2018 5/1/2019
Hogs: 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Hogs (Farrow-to-Finish): 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Hogs (Farrow-to-Feeder): 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Hogs (Feeder-to-Finish): 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Hogs (other): 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Cow-calf: 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets (discontinued)
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Basin and Range: 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Crescent: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Prairie Gateway: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Uplands: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 11/8/2018 5/1/2019
Fruitful Rim: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2009-14 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, other
U.S.: 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 2015-16 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 2015-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Recent Costs and Returns: Cow-calf
U.S.: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Heartland: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Mississippi Portal: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Southern Seaboard: 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Basin and Range: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Fruitful Rim: 1996-2007, 2008-17 10/2/2018 5/1/2019
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1989-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Delta: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-88 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Delta: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Delta: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Northeast: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Great Plains: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Northeast: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
North Central: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Great Plains: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
North Central: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Great Plains: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Northeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
North Central: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Great Plains: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2018F-2019F 12/17/2018 6/21/2019