Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The series of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into two categories: Recent and Historical estimates. Recent estimates date back to the point of the most recent major revision in accounting methods, account format, and regional definitions for each commodity. Historical estimates date back to when the series began.  Cost-of-Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops. Organic Costs and Returns for corn, milk, wheat, and soybeans are also available.

Also, see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.

NEW! Recent Commodity Costs and Returns data are now available in pivot tables and machine-readable sheets for all commodities.


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Recent Cost and Returns
Corn 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Soybeans 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Wheat 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Cotton 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Rice 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Sorghum 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Barley 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Oats 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Sugar Beets (discontinued) 5/1/2019
Peanuts 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Milk 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Hogs, All 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Hogs, Farrow-Finish 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Hogs, Farrow-Feeder 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Hogs, Feeder-Finish 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Hogs, Farrow-Wean 10/1/2015
Hogs, Wean-Feeder 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Cow-Calf 10/1/2019 5/1/2020
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1989-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Delta: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-88 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Delta: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Delta: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Northeast: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Great Plains: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Northeast: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
North Central: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Great Plains: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
North Central: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Great Plains: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Northeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
North Central: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Great Plains: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2019F-2020F 6/21/2019 12/17/2019

Last updated: Tuesday, October 01, 2019

For more information contact: Jeffrey Gillespie