Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The history of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into three categories: Current, Recent, and Historical estimates. Cost-of Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops.

Note: U.S. soybean cost and return data for 2013-2016 were revised to correct an issue found with the weighting of regional estimates. The revised estimates reflect the appropriate weight that each region has on the U.S. average. Regional soybean cost and return data were not affected by this weight correction.

Also see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.

NEW! Commodity Costs and Returns data for crops are now available in pivot tables and machine-readable sheets, in addition to the “current,” “recent,” and “historical” data files.

NOTE: Beginning October 2, 2018, Commodity Costs and Returns recent data for crops will be solely available in pivot tables and machine-readable sheets. 

 


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Data
Current Costs and Returns: All commodities
Corn: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Soybeans: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Wheat: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Cotton: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Rice: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Grain Sorghum: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Barley: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Oats: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Peanuts: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Milk: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Hogs: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Hogs (Farrow-to-Finish): 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Hogs (Farrow-to-Feeder): 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Hogs (Feeder-to-Finish): 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Hogs (other): 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Cow-calf: 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Corn
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15, 2016-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Soybeans
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Wheat
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Basin and Range: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Cotton
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 2003-06 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Rice
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018
U.S.:1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1995-2002, 2003-10 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1995-2002 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1995-2002 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Barley
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 2003-10 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Basin and Range: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Oats
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 2005-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 2005-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 2005-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 2005-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 2005-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets (discontinued)
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2008
U.S.: 2000-07 5/1/2008
Great Lakes: 2000-07 5/1/2008
Great Plains: 2000-07 5/1/2008
Northwest: 2000-07 5/1/2008
Recent Costs and Returns: Peanuts
NEW- U.S and regions (pivot table & machine readable) 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
U.S.: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1993-2003, 2004-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2004-12, 2013-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2009-14 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-2008, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, other
U.S.: 2004-08, 2009-14, 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 2015-16 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2015-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Recent Costs and Returns: Cow-calf
U.S.: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Heartland: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Mississippi Portal: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Southern Seaboard: 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Basin and Range: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Fruitful Rim: 1996-2007, 2008-17 5/1/2018 10/2/2018
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1989-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Delta: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-88 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Delta: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Delta: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Northeast: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Great Plains: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Northeast: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
North Central: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Great Plains: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
North Central: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Great Plains: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Northeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
North Central: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Great Plains: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2017F-2018F 12/14/2017 6/22/2018