Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The series of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into two categories: Recent and Historical estimates. Recent estimates date back to the point of the most recent major revision in accounting methods, account format, and regional definitions for each commodity. Historical estimates date back to when the series began. Cost-of-Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops. Organic Costs and Returns for corn, milk, wheat, and soybeans are also available.

Also, see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.

Errata: On October 13, 2021, the Commodity Costs and Returns data and visualization tool was reposted to correct errors for Peanuts, Peanuts production costs and returns per planted acre, excluding Government payments. No other tables were affected by the error.  


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Recent Cost and Returns
Corn 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Cotton 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Barley 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Wheat 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Peanuts 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Soybeans 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Rice 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Sorghum 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Oats 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Milk 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Cow-Calf 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, All 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, Farrow-Finish 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, Farrow-Feeder 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, Feeder-Finish 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, Farrow-Wean 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Hogs, Wean-Feeder 10/1/2021 5/2/2022
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S. and Regional: 2000-2007 10/1/2008
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2021F-2022F 6/22/2021 12/17/2021