Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The series of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into Recent and Historical estimates. Recent estimates date back to the most recent major revision in accounting methods, account format, and regional definitions for each commodity. Historical estimates date back to when the series began. Cost-of-Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops. Organic Costs and Returns for corn, milk, wheat, and soybeans are also available.

Also, see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.

Note: The Cost-of-Production Forecast scheduled for release on December 19, 2022, will now be released on November 15, 2022, at 3 p.m. EST.

Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Recent Cost and Returns
Corn 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Cotton 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Barley 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Peanuts 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Rice 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Sorghum 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Oats 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Soybeans 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Wheat 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Milk 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Cow-Calf 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, All 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, Farrow-Finish 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, Farrow-Feeder 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, Feeder-Finish 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, Farrow-Wean 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Hogs, Wean-Feeder 10/3/2022 5/1/2023
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S. and Regional: 2000-2007 10/1/2008
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2022F-2023F 6/22/2022 11/15/2022