Commodity Costs and Returns

Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. The history of commodity cost and return estimates for the U.S. and regions is divided into three categories: Current, Recent, and Historical estimates. Cost-of Production Forecasts are also available for major U.S. field crops.

Note: The procedure used to update the opportunity cost of land in all crop production cost and return accounts was changed in the October 1, 2013 update. Changes in cropland cash rents, reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, were used to adjust the land cost from the survey to the update year. This procedure is an improvement over changes in the general land cash rent index that was previously used. The new procedure was implemented for the land cost estimate of each commodity from the most recent survey year of the commodity through the most recent update. 

Also see the ERS Milk Cost of Production Estimates data product.


Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Data
Current Costs and Returns: All commodities
Corn: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Soybeans: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Wheat: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Cotton: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Rice: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Grain sorghum: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Barley: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Oats: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Peanuts: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Milk: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Hogs (all): 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Hogs (farrow-to-finish): 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Hogs, (farrow-to-feeder): 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Hogs (feeder-to-finish): 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Hogs (other): 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Cow-calf: 2014-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-11, 2012-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Basin and Range: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 2003-06 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 1997-2002, 2003-06, 2007-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 2000-05, 2006-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.:1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1995-2002, 2003-10 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1995-2002, 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1995-2002 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1995-2002 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 2003-10 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 2003-10, 2011-2015 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Basin and Range: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 2003-10, 2011-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 2005-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 2005-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 2005-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 2005-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 2005-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 2000-07 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Great Lakes: 2000-07 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Great Plains: 2000-07 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northwest: 2000-07 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1995-2003, 2004-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1995-2003, 2004-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1995-2003, 2004-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 2004-12, 2013-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 2000-04, 2005-09, 2010-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1998-2003, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Crescent: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Upland: 1998-2003 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 1998-2003, 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Hogs, other
U.S.: 2004-08, 2009-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Recent Costs and Returns: Cow-calf
U.S.: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Heartland: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Northern Great Plains: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Prairie Gateway: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Mississippi Portal: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Eastern Uplands: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Southern Seaboard: 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Basin and Range: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Fruitful Rim: 1996-2007, 2008-15 10/3/2016 5/1/2017
Historical Costs and Returns: Corn
U.S.: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-95 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Soybeans
U.S.: 1975-96 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1989-96 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Delta: 1975-96 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Wheat
U.S.: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Northeast: 1975-88 10/4/2001
North Central: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Great Plains: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Southeast: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
West: 1975-88, 1989-97 10/4/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Cotton
U.S.: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Delta: 1975-96 10/5/2011
West: 1975-96 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Rice
U.S.: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Delta: 1975-99 9/4/2002
West: 1975-99 9/4/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Grain sorghum
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Barley
U.S.: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Northeast: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Great Plains: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
West: 1975-2002 4/11/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Oats
U.S.: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Northeast: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
North Central: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Great Plains: 1975-2004 8/17/2007
Historical Costs and Returns: Sugar Beets
U.S.: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
North Central: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Great Plains: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
West: 1981-91, 1992-99 10/7/2004
Historical Costs and Returns: Peanuts
U.S.: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Great Plains: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Southeast: 1975-94 10/5/2001
Historical Costs and Returns: Tobacco
U.S.: 1996-2004 9/13/2005
Historical Costs and Returns: Milk
U.S.: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Northeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
North Central: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Great Plains: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
Southeast: 1980-92, 1993-99 5/24/2002
West: 1980-92, 1993-99 9/11/2002
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, all
U.S.: 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, farrow-feeder
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 10/5/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Hogs, feeder-finish
U.S.: 1982-91, 1992-97 11/7/2011
North Central: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1992-97 10/5/2011
Historical Costs and Returns: Cow-Calf
U.S.: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
North Central: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Great Plains: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Southeast: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
West: 1982-89, 1990-95 10/5/2011
Cost-of-Production Forecasts
Cost-of-production forecasts for U.S. major field crops, 2016F-2017F 10/3/2016 12/14/2016