Features, Findings, & Statistics

  • Statistic

    The Influence of Income and Prices on Global Dietary Patterns by Country, Age, and Gender

    ERS recently published estimates of income and price elasticities, a measure of how responsive consumers are to income and price changes, for 11 food groups and 164 countries.
  • Feature

    Sub-Saharan Africa Is Projected To Be the Leader in Global Rice Imports

    Rice has become a major staple food and an increasing source of calories in Sub-Saharan Africa as economic growth and increasing urbanization change consumption patterns. USDA's 10-year projections for Sub-Saharan Africa suggest that the region will soon become the leading rice importer in the world.
  • Finding

    U.S. Upland Cotton Exports and Mill Use Projected To Improve

    USDA's 10-year projections for upland cotton suggest a recovery in exports, production, and mill use through 2026 following significant declines in the past 10 years.
  • Feature

    International Food Security Assessment, 2017-2027

    Food security for 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to improve during 2017-27 as the number of food-insecure people falls by 43 percent. Over the same period, the share of the population that is food insecure is expected to drop from 17 to 9 percent.
  • Finding

    Changes in Herd Composition a Key to Indian Dairy Production

    India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of milk. Growth in milk supply and demand has been robust, but projections indicate that production targets will be difficult to reach without stronger gains in productivity.
  • Finding

    Increased Demand for U.S. Agricultural Exports Would Likely Lead to More U.S. Jobs

    A recent ERS study modeled the employment effects of a hypothetical 10-percent increase in foreign demand for U.S. agricultural exports.
  • Statistic

    U.S. Agricultural Trade in 2016: Major Commodities and Trends

    Trade is an important component of the U.S. agricultural sector. ERS tracks U.S. agricultural trade through the Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) data set and through commodity-specific data like the Livestock and Meat International Trade data set.
  • Finding

    South Africa Resumes Imports of U.S. Chicken Following 15 Years of Anti-Dumping Duties

    After 16 years of imposing anti-dumping duties on U.S. poultry, South Africa allows a quota of 65,000 tons of U.S. poultry. ERS research suggests this will not seriously impact South Africa's poultry industry.
  • Feature

    U.S.-Mexico Agricultural Trade: Opportunities for Making Free Trade Under NAFTA More Agile

    Modifying border processes and procedures in ways that make U.S.-Mexico agricultural trade more agile—thereby allowing agricultural products to cross the border more easily and quickly—is one approach to fostering further growth in this trade. This article explores several opportunities to facilitate bilateral agricultural trade in this manner.
  • Finding

    Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade: How Much Do They Impact U.S.-EU Agricultural Trade?

    Over the past two decades, expanding global trade and declining tariffs and traditional barriers to trade have brought non-tariff measures, such as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations and technical barriers to trade (TBT), to the fore of trade policy discussions. For agriculture, SPS measures and TBT are among the most frequently cited barriers to trade.
  • Finding

    India Emerges as a Major Beef Exporter

    Since the late 2000s, India has rapidly increased its beef exports—specifically water buffalo meat—narrowly overtaking Brazil as the world’s largest beef exporter in 2014. Recent ERS research shows that India’s beef exports grew from an average of 0.31 million tons during 1999-2001 to an estimated 2.1 million tons during 2013-15, or about 12 percent annually.
  • Statistic

    Production, Transportation, and Policy Factors Determine U.S. Export Competitiveness in World Corn and Soybean Markets

    A new infographic looks at export competitiveness of soybeans and corn in the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil by comparing farm-level production costs, the costs of internal transportation and handling, and the costs of shipping to a common export destination.
  • Feature

    Food Security of Developing Countries Expected To Improve Through 2026 as Food Prices Fall and Incomes Rise

    Food security for 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to improve during 2016-26 as the number of food-insecure people falls by 59 percent. Over the same period, the share of the population that is food insecure is expected to drop from 17 to 6 percent.
  • Finding

    The United States Is the World’s Leading Poultry Exporter to Sub-Saharan Africa

    From 2004 to 2012, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) became an increasingly important market for U.S. poultry. In 2004, the U.S. exported nearly 89,800 metric tons of poultry to SSA; by 2014, the amount had grown to 455,000 metric tons.
  • Finding

    Japanese Beef Imports by Exporting Source and the Impacts of Tariff Reforms

    ERS analyzed potential losses for U.S. beef exports to Japan resulting from JAEPA and potential benefits from tariff reform under TPP. Findings reveal strong competition among beef exporting countries, the intensity of which varies markedly across beef products.
  • Finding

    Rice Imports Help Alleviate Haiti’s Food Needs

    Haiti is a major market for U.S. rice, accounting for about 10 percent of U.S. rice exports. Rice imports—which were negligible prior to 1986 due to quantitative limits on imports—have improved Haiti’s food situation, increasing per capita calorie availability by about 11 percent between 1985 and 2011.
  • Feature

    International Food Security Assessment: Past Progress and Prospects Through 2025

    The 1996 World Food Summit goal was to halve the number of food-insecure people by 2015.USDA’s Economic Research Service uses its International Food Security Assessment (IFSA) model to project food availability and access in 76 low- and middle-income countries. Results from the IFSA model are used here to determine which of the 76 countries achieved the WFS goal.
  • Finding

    Rising Russian Meat Production Reduces Imports

    During its transition from a planned to a market economy that began in the early 1990’s, Russia has been a large importer of meat. By the early 2000's, the country had become the largest foreign market for U.S. poultry broilers. However, in 2009 Russian meat imports began to fall, including from the United States, with the import decline coinciding with growth in domestic meat production.
  • Finding

    Energy Policies Could Drive Ethanol Trade

    Energy policies affect trade in biofuels. This finding focuses on bilateral trade between the United States and Brazil and also offers insights into potential future changes in U.S. ethanol trade, which will mostly depend on domestic energy policies and policies in major ethanol producing countries.
  • Finding

    China’s Agricultural Policies Reshape Global Sorghum Trade

    China's agricultural and trade policies in the corn sector are shifting global patterns of sorghum imports.
  • Statistic

    What Does Exchange Rate Appreciation Mean for Export Competitiveness?

    After a long period of relative weakness, the real and nominal value of the U.S. dollar has recently strengthened relative to many trading partners’ and competitors’ currencies. If this shift persists, the outlook for U.S. agricultural exports and imports may depart from recent trends.
  • Feature

    NAFTA at 20: With Regional Trade Liberalization Complete, Focus Shifts to Other Methods of Deepening Economic Integration

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—implemented in 1994 by Canada, Mexico, and the United States—has resulted in expanded flows of intraregional agricultural trade and substantial levels of foreign direct investment in the processed food sector. A more integrated North American market in oilseeds, grains is one the more important impacts of NAFTA in the agricultural sector.
  • Feature

    Measuring Access to Food in Tanzania: A Food Basket Approach

    Household access to food over time in Tanzania is measured by comparing the cost of representative food baskets to household income. Consumption patterns show considerable diversity across the country. Combining food basket cost data and income data suggests that households in the bottom two income quintiles have significant difficulties with access to food.
  • Finding

    How Do Households Respond to Rising Food Prices in Developing Countries?

    ERS analyzed Indian household consumption data to estimate the effects of rising food prices on food consumption and household welfare. Researchers found that because rice prices rose faster than wheat prices, households whose diets were dominated by rice suffered more than households who ate more wheat.
  • Feature

    Japan, Vietnam, and the Asian Model of Agricultural Development and Trade

    Fast-developing Vietnam is following in the footsteps of Japan and its model of export-oriented industrialization. Vietnamese agricultural imports are rising fast and appear to be following the historical growth pattern of Japan’s imports. Trade policy in both countries has protected agricultural imports, selectively favoring imported inputs relative to consumer-ready products.