Farm Economy

  • Agricultural Baseline
    USDA Agricultural Projections report provides long-run projections for the farm sector for the next 10 years. These annual projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income.
  • Agricultural Research and Productivity
    Advances in agricultural productivity have led to abundant and affordable food and fiber throughout most of the developed world. Public and private agricultural research has been the foundation and basis for much of this growth and development. ERS data, research, and analyses quantify agricultural productivity improvements and the sources of improvement, in the U.S. and globally. A major focus is on developing indices of productivity growth that accurately reflect changes in the quality and mix of both inputs and outputs in the agricultural production process.
  • Bioenergy
    Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. Biofuel derived from plant materials is among the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies.
  • Commodity Outlook
    ERS, working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies, conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
  • Farm & Commodity Policy
    Farm and commodity policy has continually evolved, encompassing changing market conditions, priorities, and issues such as environmental and conservations issues and food safety.
  • Farm Household Well-being
    Farm households typically receive income from both farm and off-farm sources. The well-being of farm operator households often relies more on their nonfarm activities and investments than on their farm businesses. Research and data provide information on the sources of farm household income and wealth, the farm-nonfarm allocation of work and investments by farm household members, and other indicators of well-being, such as health insurance coverage. This topic includes the latest (February 2024) forecast of income for farm households and summarizes 2022 estimates.
  • Farm Labor
    The Farm Labor topic page presents data and analysis on the size and composition of the U.S. agricultural workforce; recent trends in the employment of hired farmworkers; farmworkers' demographic characteristics, legal status, migration practices, and geographic distribution; trends in wages and labor cost shares; and trends in H-2A program utilization.
  • Farm Sector Income & Finances
    This topic page provides a comprehensive overview of the financial characteristics and performance of the U.S. farm sector and farm businesses, including current estimates and forecasts of farm income, expenses, asset values, and debt.
  • Farm Structure and Organization
    The Economic Research Service (ERS) research program on farm structure examines developments in the farm sector as a whole and for individual commodities, assesses their causes, and evaluates their impacts on productivity, financial performance, prices, and environmental outcomes. ERS research provides detailed empirical analyses of specific issues related to the economics of farm structure and organization, including the use of contracts.
  • Federal Tax Issues
    Federal tax policy plays an important role in the well-being of farm households and the viability of farm operations. These taxes can affect the financial well-being of farm households, with impacts varying by farm household characteristics.
  • Land Use, Land Value & Tenure
    As part of its research program on the economics of land resources, ERS compiles data and conducts statistical analysis on a variety of topics concerning agricultural land use, land values, and land ownership and tenure. Information on farmland values has been updated through 2023.
  • Socially Disadvantaged, Beginning, Limited Resource, and Female Farmers and Ranchers
    Since the 1990s, beginning, socially disadvantaged, and limited resource farmers and ranchers in the United States have been eligible to receive benefits from a variety of Farm Act programs. ERS research examines the characteristics of these targeted farm operators, the farms they operate, and their households; their participation in agricultural commodity, conservation, or loan programs; and related topics, such as the number and characteristics of female farm operators.