"India's Agricultural Growth Propellers" (April 2016). ERS research on India's agricultural performance since 1980 suggests that increases in productivity have spread from the northern grain belt, led by accelerated growth in production of horticulture and animal products.

Propellers of Agricultural Productivity in India

 (December 2015). Exerting the greatest effect on India’s agricultural productivity growth since 1980 were investments in public and private agricultural research and in irrigation infrastructure.

"Food Policy and Productivity Key to India Outlook" (July 2015). India is likely to remain an important player in global agriculture markets as an importer of vegetable oils and pulses, and an exporter of rice, cotton, and beef.

Coping Strategies in Response to Rising Food Prices: Evidence From India

(November 2014). In regions of India affected the most by a dramatic surge in global food prices several years ago, households coped by sacrificing diet diversity as well as expenditures on medical expenses and durable goods.

The Impacts of Reforms to the Public Distribution System in India's Chhattisgarh on Food Security

 (March 2014). ERS research shows that food security improved in Chhattisgarh, India, in response to food aid distribution reforms.

"What Can State-Level Reforms Tell Us about India's National Food Security Act?" (March 2014). India passed the National Food Security Act in 2013 to implement reforms in the distribution of subsidized food modeled after reforms made earlier in the State of Chhattisgarh. There have been significant gains in food security in Chhattisgarh, but impacts at the national level are uncertain.

"India Continues To Grapple With Food Insecurity" (February 2014). Despite progress and large outlays on food subsidies, India still accounts for the largest share of the world’s food insecure population. The new National Food Security Act increases the households eligible for subsidized food grains, but questions remain on the impact the legislation.

Specialty Crop Access to U.S. Markets: A Case Study of Indian Mangoes

(November 2012). Using the example of Indian mangoes, ERS finds that irradiation and other regulatory costs appear low relative to other logistical and marketing costs for fresh produce entering the U.S. market and sold in niche outlets.

Estimating the Range of Food-Insecure Households in India

 (May 2012). Focusing on India, which has the world’s largest food-insecure population, ERS analyzes a large household data set used by India’s government to track household food security.

Indian Sugar Sector Cycles Down, Poised To Rebound

 (April 2010). A cyclical decline in sugar production is shifting India, the world's second largest producer, from net exporter to net importer during 2009/10 and contributing to the recent runup in global sugar prices, but production is poised to rebound in 2010/11. The recent swings in Indian sugar production are primarily due to a policy-induced cycle that has become increasingly pronounced.

Growth and Equity Effects of Agricultural Marketing Efficiency Gains in India

 (December 2009). Agriculture is the largest source of employment in India, and food accounts for about half of consumer expenditures. More efficient agricultural marketing could generate economywide gains in output and wages, raise agricultural producer prices, reduce consumer food prices, and increase private consumption, particularly by low-income households.

The Environment for Agricultural and Agribusiness Investment in India

 (July 2008). Despite strong overall economic growth and strengthening food demand, investment in Indian agriculture and agribusiness has remained sluggish, and growth in farm output has slowed, since the early 1990s. The policy environment has grown more investor friendly since the late 1990s and private investment appears to be responding, but significant barriers remain and the pace of future reforms remains uncertain.

Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies and the Implications of Reform

 (May 2007). The economic environment for India's food grain sector has changed significantly since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. Future developments will be shaped by changes in productivity and consumer demand, but primarily by how policies adapt to the new environment. Some of these changes, such as reducing price supports and the scope of government food grain operations, would likely curtail government costs, benefit consumers, allow for a larger private sector role in the domestic market, and increase reliance on international trade.

The Role of Policy and Industry Structure in India's Oilseed Markets

 (April 2006). Rising incomes in India are likely to lead to continued strong growth in that country's demand for oils and oil meals. Extensive policy intervention affects Indian oilseed production, trade, and processing. Current high tariffs on oilseeds and oil are of little benefit to Indian producers while imposing high costs on consumers. Policy reform, particularly liberalization of oilseed imports, could improve producer and consumer welfare and have a significant impact on trade.

Prospects for India's Emerging Apple Market

 (January 2006). Strong economic growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher income consumers. High internal marketing margins-or returns to traders over and above measured costs-are a major contributor to high retail apple prices.

Growth Prospects for India's Cotton and Textile Industries

 (June 2005). Indian cotton use is expanding due to rising demand in India and increased textile and apparel exports following the removal of Multifiber Arrangement quotas. Reforms to policies that discriminate against large scale manufacturing and use of manmade fibers should boost export competitiveness and demand growth. Raw cotton imports have increased recently, with future growth dependent on how much progress is made in improving domestic cotton yields and quality.

Indian Agriculture: Status and Reform Potential 2004 (August 2004). Most of India's extensive policy interventions in agricultural markets were introduced in response to conditions prior to independence in 1947, as well as the food crisis of the mid-1960s. Agricultural policies are now resulting in burdensome subsidies, weak investment, and sluggish growth in the sector. Recent election results revealed significant dissatisfaction with the performance of the rural and farm sector, which may give impetus to reforms that develop infrastructure and remove regulatory constraints to private investment in agricultural technology and markets.

India's Poultry Sector: Development and Prospects

 (February 2004). Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat demand, and India, the world's second largest developing country, is experiencing rapid growth in its poultry sector. In India, poultry sector growth is being driven by rising incomes and a rapidly expanding middle class, together with competitively priced domestic feed supplies and the emergence of vertically integrated poultry producers.

"The Elephant Is Jogging: New Pressures for Agricultural Reform in India" (February 2004). India's economy and agricultural sector have made remarkable progress in the 57 years since independence in 1947. Now, however, the agricultural sector has outgrown the policies that contributed to past success, as strengthening consumer demand, rising subsidies, and low agribusiness investment create pressure for policy reform.

India's Edible Oil Sector: Imports Fill Rising Demand

 (November 2003). India is the world's leading importer of edible oils and is likely to remain an important source of global import demand for the foreseeable future. Income and population growth, trade policy reforms, and domestic agricultural policies affecting the productivity of India's oilseed farmers and processing sector have contributed to increased consumption and import demand.

India's Pulse Sector: Results of Field Research

 (May 2003). India has the world's largest pulse sector, but despite liberal import policies, imports have remained a small share of supplies and per capita consumption has declined. This report describes the market for crops such as chickpeas and lentils in that country and assesses the United States' competitive position as a supplier.

India's Consumer and Producer Price Policies: Implications for Food Security (February 2003). Rising retail grain prices (due to higher farm support prices) are the principal constraint to improving access to food by the poor, who spend roughly 80 percent of their income on food. Improving marketing efficiency and farm yields would allow retail food prices to fall without adversely affecting farmers.

India Relaxes Restraints on Agricultural Imports (November 2000). Following an agreement negotiated under the World Trade Organization, India will replace its quantitative import restrictions with a system of tariffs and tariff-rate quotas by early 2001, providing trade access to all its commodity markets, including agricultural markets.

Trade Liberalization and the South Asian Economies: Adjusting to the Challenges of Globalization (December 1999). South Asian countries have made significant strides in the past two decades in reforming economic policy, removing trade restrictions, and implementing Uruguay Round Agreement commitments, but further reform is needed to attain food security and improve economic growth in the region.