The United States addresses agricultural and food policy through a variety of programs, including nutrition assistance, crop insurance, commodity support, and conservation. Much of the legal framework for agricultural and food policy is set through a legislative process that occurs approximately every 5 years.

The current farm law, the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (2018 Farm Act), was signed on December 20, 2018, and will remain in force through 2023, although some provisions extend beyond 2023.

For ERS research and analysis related to the Farm Bill, see Recent Farm Bill-Related Research.