Price Spreads from Farm to Consumer

Food processors, manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and foodservice providers transform raw agricultural commodities into convenient food products for U.S. consumers. Value added to commodities through these companies’ marketing services accounts for a substantial portion of consumer food prices.

USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS) compares prices consumers pay for food with prices farmers receive for corresponding commodities. This dataset reports these comparisons for a variety of foods sold through retail stores such as supermarkets and supercenters.

Comparisons are made for individual foods and groupings of foods—market baskets—that represent what a typical U.S. household buys at retail in a year. The retail costs of these baskets are compared to the money farmers receive for a corresponding basket of agricultural commodities.

Long-run trends in farm-to-consumer price spreads may reflect a variety of underlying economic conditions. These underlying conditions include advances in technology used to process and distribute food, and changes in prices for inputs such as labor, energy, and raw agricultural commodities. The Highlights and Interactive Charts data visualizations allow users to explore changes in farm-to-consumer price spreads over time.

Individual files within the dataset are updated regularly as the underlying data become available.

ERS price spreads for meat, pork, poultry, and eggs are in the Meat Price Spreads data product. A different method is used to calculate monthly price spreads for beef, pork, broilers, turkeys, and eggs.

Data Training Webinar: ERS economists Hayden Stewart, Bill Hahn, and Jeffrey Hyman provide an overview of the Price Spreads from Farm to Consumers and Meat Price Spreads data products as well as a tutorial on how to find and use the data.

Data Set Last Updated Next Update
Milk and dairy basket 4/24/2023
Butter, one pound 4/24/2023
Cheddar cheese, one pound 4/24/2023
Ice cream, regular, one-half gallon 4/24/2023
Whole milk, one gallon 4/24/2023
Fresh fruit
Fresh fruit basket 2/27/2024
Fresh apples 3/4/2021
Fresh grapefruit 3/4/2021
Fresh grapes 3/4/2021
Fresh lemons 3/4/2021
Fresh oranges 2/27/2024
Fresh peaches 3/4/2021
Fresh pears 3/4/2021
Fresh strawberries 2/27/2024
Fresh vegetables
Fresh vegetables basket 2/27/2024
Fresh broccoli 10/2/2020
Fresh lettuce, iceberg 10/2/2020
Fresh potatoes 2/27/2024
Fresh tomatoes, field-grown 2/27/2024
Processed fruit and vegetables
Orange juice, not from concentrate, one gallon 4/24/2023
Orange juice, frozen concentrate, one reconstituted gallon 4/24/2023
Field crops
Flour, white, all-purpose, per pound 4/24/2023
Vegetable (soybean) oil, per gallon 4/24/2023
Sugar, white, per pound 2/27/2024
White pan bread, per pound 4/24/2023
Archived Versions
Fresh fruit and vegetables baskets 4/29/2021
Cheddar cheese, one pound 11/20/2013
Ice cream, regular, one-half gallon 11/20/2013
Whole milk, one gallon 11/20/2013
Butter, one pound 11/14/2012
Margarine, stick, per pound 11/14/2012