Food Availability and Consumption
ERS’s Food Availability data measure annual supplies of several hundred raw and semi-processed food commodities moving through the U.S. marketing system, providing per capita estimates of the types and amounts of food available to U.S. consumers over time and identifying shifts in eating patterns and food demand. A second data series covering 1970 onward—the Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data—adjusts for losses from the farmgate to the fork, including damaged products, spoilage, plate waste, and other losses to more closely approximate per capita consumption.
While people in the United States are consuming more vegetables and fruit than in 1970, the average U.S. diet still falls short of the recommendations in the 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for these major food groups. On average, 2018 consumption of meat, eggs, and nuts as well as grains in the United States was higher than the recommended amounts.
In 2018, 65.2 pounds of chicken per person were available for Americans to eat (on a boneless, edible basis), compared to 54.6 pounds of beef. Chicken began its upward climb in the 1940s, overtaking pork in 1996 as the second most consumed meat. Since 1970, U.S. chicken availability per person has more than doubled. In 2018, 16.1 pounds of fish and shellfish per person were available for consumption.
In 2019, 36.5 pounds per person of corn products (flour and meal, hominy and grits, and food starch) were available for consumption in the United States, up from 21.8 pounds per person in 1989, according to ERS’s food availability data. Wheat flour availability was 131.1 pounds per person in 2019, below its peak of 146.8 pounds in 1997.
In 2019, 123.2 pounds per person of caloric sweeteners were available for consumption by U.S. consumers, down from a high of 151.5 pounds in 1999. Availability of total corn sweeteners (high-fructose corn syrup, glucose syrup, and dextrose) fell from 83.6 pounds per person in 1999 to 52.7 pounds in 2019. Meanwhile, refined sugar (cane and beet) availability per person surpassed corn sweeteners in 2010, reaching 68.4 pounds per person in 2019.
Dairy products available for consumption after adjusting for losses totaled 1.5 cup-equivalents of dairy products per person per day in 1979 and 2019—half the recommended amount for a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet. While overall quantity is the same, the mix has changed. Loss-adjusted availability of fluid milk has fallen from 0.9 to 0.5 cup per person per day, while loss-adjusted cheese availability has doubled.
In 2019, 49.4 pounds of potatoes per person and 31.4 pounds of tomatoes per person were available for consumption after adjusting for losses. Forty-one percent of loss-adjusted potato availability was frozen and 60 percent of loss-adjusted tomato availability was canned, as French fries and pizza sauce contribute to the high consumption of these two vegetables. The third highest vegetable—onions—came in at 9.4 pounds per person.
Apples held the top spot for total fruit available for consumption in 2019 with loss-adjusted apple juice availability at 12.6 pounds (1.4 gallons) per person, fresh apples at roughly 10 pounds per person, and canned, dried, and frozen apples totaling to 3.3 pounds per person. Bananas (13.4 pounds per person) topped the list of most popular fresh fruits, while orange juice (16.7 pounds or 1.9 gallons) remained America’s favorite juice.