Fred Gale

Senior Economist


Conducts research and market analysis on China's agriculture, policies and international trade. Fred Gale also has extensive experience in research on U.S. farm structure and the rural economy.

Current Projects:

  • Analysis of China-U.S.-Brazil soybean trade
  • Investigation of China's rejections of imported foods
  • Indexes of China and U.S. cost-competitiveness for major commodities
  • Historical development of China's pork industry


PhD, Economics, N.C. State University, 1988. BS, Economics, Virginia Tech, 1983

Selected Publications

E. Gooch and F. Gale. 2018. China’s Foreign Agriculture Investments, USDA-ERS. EIB 192.

F. Gale. 2017. China's Pork Imports Rise Along with Production Costs, USDA-ERS. LDPM-271-01.

C. Arnade, B. Cooke and F. Gale. 2017. “Agricultural price transmission: China relationships with world commodity markets,” Journal of Commodity Markets 7(2017):28-40.

F. Gale and C. Arnade. 2015. "Effects of Rising Feed and Labor Costs on China’s Chicken Price," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 18(A): 137-50.

F. Gale and D. Hu. 2015. "Urbanizing China's Pigs," China Environment Series 2015/16:20-24.

F. Gale and D. Hu. 2011. "Food Safety Pressures Push Integration in China's Agricultural Sector," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 94(2):483-88.

Wang, Z., H. Yuan, Fred Gale. 2009. “Costs of Adopting a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System: Case Study of a Chinese Poultry Processing Firm,” Review of Agricultural Economics 31(3):574-78.

K. Huang, and F. Gale. 2009. “Food Demand in China: Income, Quality, and Nutrient Effects,” China Agricultural Economic Review 1(4):395-409.

Wang, Z., Y. Mao, F. Gale. 2008. “Emerging Food Safety Awareness: Milk Products in Beijing,” Food Policy 33(1):27-36.

H.F. Gale, T. Wojan and J. Olmsted. 2002. “Flexible Manufacturing Technology, Work Organization, and Worker Skills”, Industrial Relations 41(1):48-79.

H.F. Gale. 1993. “Why Did the Number of Young Farm Entrants Decline?” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 75(February):138-146.