Biofuels Data Sources

The Biofuels Data Sources matrix provides access to selected sources of economic data on biofuels from the U.S. Government. Data come from the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Energy (DOE), Census Bureau, International Trade Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. The matrix contains a compendium of market data on supply, use, price, and other data related to biofuels, biofuel feedstocks, and petroleum products. It focuses on conventional ethanol (primarily from corn) and biodiesel, the feedstocks used to produce these fuels, and the petroleum fuels that compete with or complement the use of these biofuels. The Biofuels Data Sources is a collaborative effort of the DOE’s Energy Information Administration and USDA’s Economic Research Service.

This section provides comprehensive access to selected sources of data on biofuels provided by the U.S. Government.

Conversion Factors

These tables assume standard conversion factors regarding ethanol and coproduct Pro­duction, listed below. In addition, some tables contain ratios indicating the share of various feedstocks used for biofuels, expressed as share of total disappearance or use. Total disappearance or use is supply minus ending stocks.

  • 1 bushel of corn yields 2.7 gallons of ethanol
  • 1 bushel of corn yields 17.5 pounds of distillers’ dried grains (DDGS)
  • 1 barrel = 42 gallons
  • 1 gallon of ethanol contains the same energy as 0.66 gal. of gasoline
  • 1 gasoline-equivalent gallon of ethanol = 1.33 gal. of ethanol
  • Corn, 1 bushel = 56 pounds
  • Sorghum, 1 bushel = 56 pounds
  • 1 metric ton = 2,204.622 pounds
  • 1 U.S. (short) ton = 2,000 pounds
Biofuel feedstocks
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Ethanol feedstocks
Fuel ethanol Corn and sorghum used by producers of fuel ethanol Grain Crushings and Co-Products Pro­duction National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA Survey Monthly Data available beginning October 2014
Corn supply, use, and price Historical data: corn use in ethanol Feed Grains database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Survey Annual data, updated monthly Use custom query:
a) select "supply and use,"
b) select "Utilization, in alcohol for fuel"
Corn supply, use, and price Recent estimates and forecasts: corn use in ethanol Feed Outlook Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Combination Annual data, updated monthly See tables 1 and 5.
Corn supply, use, and price 10-year projections: corn use in ethanol Agricultural Baseline Database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Projections Annual Create customized projections for ethanol by selecting "corn" in "commodity" box and "ethanol for fuel" in "Attribute" box.
Biodiesel feedstocks
Biodiesel Vegetable oils and animal fats Monthly Biodiesel Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly Individual feedstocks reported in million pounds
Biodiesel Vegetable oils and animal fats Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculated Monthly Feedstock equivalent in trillions of Btus calculated as biodiesel Pro­duction times a factor
Fuel, feedstock & coproduct prices
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Ethanol and biodiesel feedstock prices
Ethanol, biodiesel, and associated feedstock prices Weekly yield and price data for distillers grains and difference between corn price and coproduct value Bioenergy Market News Reports Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Monthly, weekly, daily N/A
N/A N/A Ethanol Corn & Co-products Processing Values Report Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A Iowa Ethanol Plant Report Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A Iowa Ethanol Corn & Co-Products Processing Values (Fri) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A National Weekly Ethanol Summary Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A Nebraska Ethanol Corn & Co-Products Processing Values Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A South Dakota Ethanol Corn & Coproducts Processing Values Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A Weekly Ag Energy Roundup Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
N/A N/A Weekly Distillers Grains Summary Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly N/A
Cellulosic biofuel feedstock prices
Biomass prices Selected prices National Biomass Report Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Weekly Weekly prices for cornstalks, wheat straw, milo stalks, mixed hay, timothy, mixed grass, bermuda grass; various locations
Trade
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Biodiesel Imports Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly Most EIA data are released only for the U.S. or at regional or State levels without identifying individual reporting companies. However, EIA monthly import data are available in a file that identifies activity for individual companies. Reporting companies are importers of record and, in certain cases, ultimate consignees.
Biodiesel Imports Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly Most EIA data are released only for the U.S. or at regional or State levels without identifying individual reporting companies. However, EIA monthly import data are available in a file that identifies activity for individual companies. Reporting companies are importers of record and, in certain cases, ultimate consignees.
Biodiesel Exports Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce (DOC) U.S. Census Bureau Monthly Trade data within biofuels supply and use tables.
Biodiesel Exports Monthly Energy Review U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce (DOC) U.S. Census Bureau Monthly Trade data within biofuels supply and use tables.
Fuel ethanol Imports Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Most EIA data are released only for the U.S. or at regional or State levels without identifying individual reporting companies. However, EIA monthly import data are available in a file that identifies activity for individual companies.
Fuel ethanol Imports Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Most EIA data are released only for the U.S. or at regional or State levels without identifying individual reporting companies. However, EIA monthly import data are available in a file that identifies activity for individual companies.
Fuel ethanol Imports Company Level Imports Data U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Most EIA data are released only for the U.S. or at regional or State levels without identifying individual reporting companies. However, EIA monthly import data are available in a file that identifies activity for individual companies.
Fuel ethanol Imports and Exports Feed Grain Database Economic Research Service, USDA U.S. Census Bureau Annual, monthly, and quarterly data, updated monthly Use custom query: a) select "supply and use," b) select byproduct of interest.
U.S. trade data for biofuels and other commodities A menu-driven system for retrieving U.S. import and export data for biofuels and other commodities Dataweb U.S. International Trade Commission with data from the U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Census Bureau Monthly, quarterly, year-to-date, annual Dataweb users must register for a free account.
U.S. trade data for biofuels and other commodities U.S. and state trade data and trade with U.S. possessions Foreign Trade Data Products U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce (DOC) U.S. Census Bureau Monthly and annual Subscription required (fee).
U.S. trade data for agricultural commodities U.S. trade data Global Agricultural Trade System (GATS) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), USDA U.S. Census Bureau Monthly and annual Custom query feature.
Commodity codes for trade data Commodity classification system for U.S. imports Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States U.S. International Trade Commission N/A Biannual N/A
Commodity codes for trade data Commodity classification system for U.S. exports Schedule B U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce (DOC) N/A Annual N/A
Supply & use
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Fuel ethanol Ethanol coproduct Pro­duction by fuel ethanol plants. Includes sweeteners, distillers grains, germ meal, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, oil, and carbon dioxide from wet and dry mills. Grain Crushings and Co-Products Pro­duction National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), USDA Survey Monthly Data available beginning October 2014.
Fuel ethanol Pro­duction Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly EIA pro­duction of fuel ethanol typically includes the de­naturant volume. Input of de­naturants (pentanes plus and gasoline) are also reported. No feedstocks data.
Fuel ethanol Pro­duction Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly EIA pro­duction of fuel ethanol typically includes the de­naturant volume. Input of de­naturants (pentanes plus and gasoline) are also reported. No feedstocks data.
Fuel ethanol Pro­duction Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly EIA pro­duction of fuel ethanol typically includes the de­naturant volume. Input of de­naturants (pentanes plus and gasoline) are also reported. No feedstocks data.
Fuel ethanol Feedstocks Monthly Energy Review, Table 10.3 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculation Monthly The EIA survey of fuel ethanol Pro­duction Department of Energy (DOE)s not include feedstocks. The Monthly Energy Review includes feedstocks calculated in trillions of Btus. The calculation is fuel ethanol Pro­duction times a factor.
Fuel ethanol Exports Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce (DOC) Trade records Monthly N/A
Selected petroleum products including motor fuels blended with biofuels Demand (consumption) estimated from sales data Petroleum Marketing Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly Biofuels are included in motor fuel sales. Data are available for the U.S., Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts, and States.
Biodiesel Supply and use Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculation Monthly Includes blending volumes as well as unreported but implied blending.
Biodiesel Supply and use Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculation Monthly Includes blending volumes as well as unreported but implied blending.
Biodiesel Pro­duction and use Monthly and annual U.S. disappearance of methyl esters from soybeans (a proxy for soybean oil-based biodiesel Pro­duction Oil Crops Outlook Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), USDA Survey Monthly See Table 3, Soybean Oil: U.S. supply and disappearance.
Biodiesel Blending (input) Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly Blending volumes reported by terminal operators and refiners.
Fuel ethanol Blending (input) Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Blending volumes reported by terminal operators and refiners.
Fuel ethanol Blending (input) Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Blending volumes reported by terminal operators and refiners.
Fuel ethanol Consumption Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Collected and calculated Monthly Includes blending volumes as well as unreported but implied blending.
Fuel ethanol Consumption Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Collected and calculated Monthly Includes blending volumes as well as unreported but implied blending.
Fuel ethanol Consumption Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Collected and calculated Monthly Includes blending volumes as well as unreported but implied blending.
Petroleum products and natural gas liquids, including motor fuels blended with biofuels EIA uses an implied demand (consumption) measure called "product supplied" Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculated Weekly and monthly Biofuels are included in motor fuel product supplied. Data are available for the U.S. and Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs).
Petroleum products and natural gas liquids, including motor fuels blended with biofuels EIA uses an implied demand (consumption) measure called "product supplied" Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculated Weekly and monthly Biofuels are included in motor fuel product supplied. Data are available for the U.S. and Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs).
Petroleum products and natural gas liquids, including motor fuels blended with biofuels EIA uses an implied demand (consumption) measure called "product supplied" Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Calculated Weekly and monthly Biofuels are included in motor fuel product supplied. Data are available for the U.S. and Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs).
Biodiesel Pro­duction capacity Monthly Biodiesel Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Monthly N/A
Fuel ethanol Pro­duction capacity Fuel Ethanol Plant Pro­duction Capacity U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Annual Fuel ethanol Pro­duction capacity as of January 1 each year.
Bioenergy feedstock, price, byproduct supply, and use Bioenergy statistics; conventional feedstocks used in biofuels, prices, ethanol, biodiesel, dry distiller's grains supply and use U.S. Bioenergy Statistics database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Data aggregated from other sources or calculated Monthly Provides ethanol and biodiesel supply and use based on feedstock marketing years.
Biodiesel Net receipts Petroleum Supply Monthly and Petroleum Supply Annual U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey and calculation Monthly Movements are collected between Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) when transport modes are pipeline, tanker, and barge. There are currently no survey data for movements by rail and truck. Implied net receipts including pipeline, tanker, barge, rail, and truck are calculated for each PADD.
Fuel ethanol Net receipts Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey and calculation Monthly Movements are collected between Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) when transport modes are pipeline, tanker, and barge. There are currently no survey data for movements by rail and truck. Net receipts including pipeline, tanker, barge, rail, and truck are calculated for each PADD.
Stocks
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Fuel ethanol Stocks (inventories) Weekly Petroleum Status Report U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Stocks are reported based on custody, not ownership. Quantities include stocks held in primary supply channels and exclude secondary inventory and end-user storage.
Fuel ethanol Stocks (inventories) Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Stocks are reported based on custody, not ownership. Quantities include stocks held in primary supply channels and exclude secondary inventory and end-user storage.
Fuel ethanol Stocks (inventories) Monthly Energy Review U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly Stocks are reported based on custody, not ownership. Quantities include stocks held in primary supply channels and exclude secondary inventory and end-user storage.
Biodiesel Stocks (inventories) Petroleum Supply Monthly U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Survey Weekly and monthly since 2010 Stocks are reported based on custody, not ownership. Quantities include stocks held in primary supply channels and exclude secondary inventory and end-user storage.
Bioenergy feedstock, price, byproduct supply, and use Bioenergy statistics; conventional feedstocks used in biofuels, prices, ethanol, biodiesel, ddg supply and use U.S. Bioenergy Statistics database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Data aggregated from other sources or calculated Monthly Provides ethanol and biodiesel supply and use based on feedstock marketing years.
Miscellaneous aggregated data
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Bioenergy statistics Conventional feedstocks used in biofuels, prices, ethanol, biodiesel, ddg supply and use U.S. Bioenergy Statistics database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Data aggregated from other sources or calculated Monthly Provides ethanol and biodiesel supply and use based on feedstock marketing years.
Gasoline Consumption Highway Statistics Federal Highway Administration (FHA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Collected and calculated Monthly and Annual N/A
Projections
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Energy related analysis and projections including biofuels Projections and analyses of U.S. and international energy supply, demand, and prices Short-Term Energy Outlook U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Models and estimates Monthly and annual N/A
Energy related analysis and projections including biofuels Projections and analyses of U.S. and international energy supply, demand, and prices Annual Energy Outlook U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Models and estimates Monthly and annual N/A
Energy related analysis and projections including biofuels Projections and analyses of U.S. and international energy supply, demand, and prices International Energy Outlook U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE) Models and estimates Monthly and annual N/A
Corn supply, use, and price 10-year projections: corn use in ethanol Agricultural Baseline Database Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA Projections Annual Create customized projections for ethanol by selecting "corn" in "commodity" box and "ethanol for fuel" in "Attribute" box
Regulations
Category Description Primary report name(s) Source agency Sources & methods Frequency Notes
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) data Aggregated monthly data on Renewable Identification Number (RIN) generation and renewable fuel volume Pro­duction for specific fuel categories. EPA Moderated Transaction System U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data are based on reports filed by renewable fuel producers and importers, gasoline and diesel refiners, renewable fuel exporters, RIN owners, and any other RFS regulated party. Monthly N/A

Recommended Citation

Capehart, T., M. Conner, E. Dohlman, T. Joshua. 2015. “Biofuels Data Sources.” Prepared for the Interagency Council on Agricultural and Rural Statistics, subcommittee of the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy.

ICARS Biofuels Data Work Group Members:

  • Michael Conner (Co-Chair), DOE – Energy Information Administration (contact: email Michael.Conner@eia.gov, or phone 202-586-1795)
  • Tom Capehart, USDA – Economic Research Service
  • Troy Joshua, USDA – National Agricultural Statistics Service

ICARS (Interagency Council on Agricultural and Rural Statistics) activity helps identify, describe, and harmonize agricultural and rural data produced by the Federal Government. ICARS was formed in support of the “Global Strategy to Improve Agriculture and Rural Statistics,” which was developed under the United Nations Statistical Commission.