Publications

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  • Oil Prices and Ethanol Demand Drive Changes in Agricultural Commodity Production in Brazil

    Amber Waves, July 05, 2016

    Prices of oil and biofuels, agricultural land use, and commodity markets are linked through a complex web of interactions. In Brazil, a major consumer and producer of ethanol and a leading commodity exporter, changes in oil prices could lead to major shifts in the country’s cropping patterns and, as a result, changes in world commodity prices.

  • Brazil's Agricultural Land Use and Trade: Effects of Changes in Oil Prices and Ethanol Demand

    ERR-210, June 29, 2016

    ERS examines the extent to which changes in oil prices could affect Brazil's ethanol sector and the agricultural land-use decisions on production of sugarcane-Brazil's main ethanol feedstock-versus other crop and livestock activities.

  • Corn and Soybean Production Costs and Export Competitiveness in Argentina, Brazil, and the United States

    EIB-154, June 20, 2016

    Lower shipping costs have helped keep the U.S. competitive with South America in international markets, but that could change with recent reductions in export taxes, export restrictions, and transportation costs in Brazil and Argentina.

  • Brazil's Corn Industry and the Effect on the Seasonal Pattern of U.S. Corn Exports

    AES-93, June 15, 2016

    Brazil's corn exports are now concentrated in months traditionally dominated by Northern Hemisphere exporters, particularly the United States. Greater competition from Brazil could alter the seasonal pattern of U.S. corn exports and prices.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook: April 2015

    CWS-15D, April 13, 2015

    The April 2015 Cotton and Wool Outlook report presents and discusses USDA's 2014/15 U.S. and world cotton supply and demand projections. Information on world cotton producer support is highlighted.

  • Brazil’s Agricultural Productivity Growth Spurred by Research

    Amber Waves, September 20, 2012

    Over the last 25 years, Brazil emerged as a major agricultural producer and exporter, with agricultural production rising 77 percent between 1985 and 2006. Government investments in infrastructure and agricultural research, led to increases in agricultural productivity and expansion of cultivated area.

  • Policy, Technology, and Efficiency of Brazilian Agriculture

    ERR-137, July 09, 2012

    ERS focuses on the effects of Brazil's science and technology investments and other public policies on the country's growth in agricultural production—77 percent between 1985 and 2006—and its emergence as a major agricultural exporter.

  • Can Brazil Meet the World’s Growing Need for Ethanol?

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2011

    Brazil's ethanol industry has been aided by increased capacity to produce sugarcane as an ethanol feedstock, supportive government policies, and efficiency improvements. Other factors, however, may affect its ability to fill growing world demand for ethanol.

  • Brazil's Ethanol Industry: Looking Forward

    BIO-02, June 27, 2011

    This report profiles and analyzes Brazil's ethanol industry, providing information on the policy environment that enabled the development of feedstock and processing sectors, and discusses the various opportunities and challenges to face the industry over the next decade.

  • Brazil's Cotton Industry: Economic Reform and Development

    CWS-11D01, June 17, 2011

    This report identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil's cotton production and exports that have made the country both an important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with U.S. cotton producers since 1990.

  • Sugar and Sweetners Outlook: May 2008

    SSSM-252, May 27, 2008

    At the end of March 2008, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) projected sugar beet acreage intentions for the 2008 crop year at 1.132 million acres, about 10.9 percent lower than 2007 crop year area planted. Assuming normal sucrose levels and continued improvement in productivity, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) projects fiscal year (FY) 2009 national beet sugar production at 4.400 million short tons, raw value (STRV), about 410,000 STRV less than the projection for FY 2008 (4.810 million STRV).

  • Brazil's Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2006

    Rising global income and Brazil's ready availability of land, water, and labor has allowed Brazil to increase crop and meat production and expand exports. However, the long-term growth of Brazilian agriculture could slow due to supply side factors. Furthermore, continued growth in domestic food demand and the changing composition of food demand could dampen growth in processed and high-value agro-food exports.

  • Brazil Emerges As Major Force in Global Meat Markets

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2006

    Since 2004, Brazil has been the world's largest beef and poultry exporter and fourth-largest pork exporter, with total meat sales generating over US$8 billion. Exports have been driven by the combination of rising incomes in many parts of the world and Brazil's ready availability of land and feed resources to support meat production. Brazil's poultry meat exports account for 41 percent of global trade. Export destinations include the EU-25, Middle Eastern countries, Japan, Russia, and Hong Kong.

  • Food Security Assessment, GFA-15

    GFA-15, May 20, 2004

    Just over 900 million people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2003. This marks a decline from more than 1 billion in 2002. Although food security is expected to improve in all regions over the coming decade, this improvement will vary. Food security is projected to improve most significantly in Asia, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Although some improvement is also expected in Sub-Saharan Africa, the deep poverty at the root of hunger problems in the lower income population will remain unchanged. Food aid has been and continues to be an important tool used by the international community to fight hunger in low-income countries, and the United States is the dominant food donor country. However, the effectiveness of food aid could be improved by increased coordination between donor groups, more transparent eligibility criteria, and fewer fluctuations in year-to-year aid levels.

  • A Comparison of Food Assistance Programs in Mexico and the United States

    FANRR-6, August 04, 2000

    The social safety nets in Mexico and the United States rely heavily on food assistance programs to ensure food security and access to safe and nutritious foods. To achieve these general goals, both countries' programs are exclusively paid for out of internal funds and both target low-income households and/or individuals. Despite those similarities, economic, cultural, and demographic differences between the countries lead to differences in their abilities to ensure food security and access to safe and nutritious foods. Mexico uses geographic and household targeting to distribute benefits while the United States uses only household targeting. U.S. food assistance programs tend to be countercyclical (as the economy expands, food assistance expenditures decline and vice-versa). Mexican food assistance programs appear to be neither counter- nor procyclical. Food assistance programs have little effect on the extent of poverty in Mexico, while the opposite is true in the United States, primarily because the level of benefits as a percentage of income is much lower in Mexico and a much higher percentage of eligible households receive benefits from food assistance programs in the United States.