The Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Tables contain summary statistics on sugar, sugarbeets, sugarcane, corn sweeteners (dextrose, glucose, and high-fructose corn syrup), and honey. Please see the Methods section for information on geographic coverage, time frame, and frequency of release.


Key variables in the yearbook tables include the following, each of which is linked to the respective methodology:

Data Time Frame

The U.S. summary statistics are available on an annual, quarterly, or monthly basis. For annual data, most are presented in fiscal years (October 1–September 30). In tables where monthly or quarterly data is available, both the fiscal-and calendar-year basis are also provided. Some statistics, particularly those related to sugarbeet and sugarcane production are presented in crop years. Crop year timing varies depending on the crop and State. Some statistics are available in a calendar-year basis only. One table containing statistics on field corn use in the United States is presented in marketing year (September 1–October 31).

Data on Mexico’s sugar supply and use are presented in fiscal years (October 1–September 30).

For sugarbeets, crop year relates to the year of intended harvest except for overwintered spring-planted beets in California. For example, the 1990/91 crop year indicates that the sugarbeets were harvested in 1990. Except in California, sugarbeet harvest typically begins in August.

For sugarcane, crop year relates to the year of intended harvest, which typically begins in September for Louisiana, October for Florida and Texas, and January for Hawaii. Note that there has been no sugar production in Hawaii since 2016.

The tables that are on a crop-year basis are:

  • U.S. sugar crop production and sugar production, deliveries, and stocks
    • Table 14–U.S. sugarbeet crops: area planted, area harvested, yield per acre, and production, by State and region, by crop year
    • Table 15–U.S. sugarcane: area, yield, production, sugar output, recovery rate, and sugar yield per acre, by crop year
    • Table 17–U.S. sugarbeet area, yield, and production, by crop year

Calendar year

The tables that are available on a calendar-year basis only (i.e., no fiscal year equivalent) are:

  • U.S. corn sweetener supply and use
    • Table 37–U.S. dextrose supply and use, by calendar year, since 1964
    • Table 38–U.S. glucose supply and use, by calendar year, since 1964

Marketing year

The marketing year for corn begins September 1 and is composed of four quarters (September-November, December-February, March-May, and June-August). The table on a marketing-year basis is:

Conversion Factors

Several units of measure are used in this data product. Here are a few useful conversion factors:

Short ton = 2,000 pounds

Metric ton = 2,204.6226 pounds

Metric ton = 1.102311 short ton

Short ton = 0.907185 metric ton

Raw value = 1.07*actual weight, except for sugar from Mexico where it is assumed that on average: raw value = 1.06*actual weight

World Production, Supply, and Distribution Data

The annual production, supply, and distribution data by selected countries and region are derived from the USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service’s (FAS) Production, Supply, and Distribution (PSD) database. USDA, FAS releases the data twice per year in May and November. The May release contains data for the next marketing year.

The sugar marketing years for most countries in PSD are May–April, but the database has exceptions, including:

  • April–March: Brazil
  • July–June: Australia
  • September–August: Philippines
  • October–September: Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Bolivia, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, the European Union-27, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Iran, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Russia, Serbia, Sudan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, the United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam
  • December–November: Thailand
World, U.S., and Mexican Sugar and Corn Sweetener Prices Data

The monthly U.S. raw cane sugar prices are calculated from the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) Number (No.) 16 futures prices, whereas the prices for the world raw cane sugar and refined sugar are from ICE No. 11 and No. 5 futures prices, respectively. The monthly prices are derived by averaging the nearest daily nearby futures settlement from the respective exchanges for which an entire month of prices is available. For example, the raw cane sugar’s April 2001 price average of 21.51 cents is the average settlement for the July 2001 futures price during the month of April since the May 2001 futures expired on April 10.

The monthly U.S. refined beet sugar and corn sweetener list and spot prices are sourced from Sosland Publishing’s weekly Milling and Baking News. Prices are calculated as the average of the lower end of the weekly range of quotations in that month.

The monthly Producer Price Index (PPI) for sugar and corn sweeteners, and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for sugar and selected sweetener-containing products are from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The PPI and CPI series identifications (IDs) are as follows:

Series ID Description
PCU3112213112211 Corn sweeteners (liquids and solids), including glucose, dextrose, and high-fructose corn syrup
PCU3113143113141 Raw cane sugar and other cane mill products and byproducts
PCU3113143113143 Refined cane sugar and byproducts
PCU3113133113130 Refined beet sugar and byproducts
CUUR0000SEFR Sugar and sweets
CUUR0000SEFR01 Sugar and artificial sweeteners
CUUR0000SEFA01 Flour and prepared flour mixes
CUUR0000SAF111 Cereals and bakery products
CUUR0000SEFA02 Breakfast cereal
CUUR0000SS02011 White bread
CUUR0000SEFB03 Cakes, cupcakes, and cookies
CUUR0000SEFB04 Other bakery products
CUUR0000SAF114 Non-alcoholic beverages
CUUR0000SEFN01 Carbonated drinks
CUUR0000SEFN03 Non-carbonated juices and drinks
CUUR0000SS13031 Canned fruits
CUUR0000SEFR02 Candy and chewing gum
CUUR0000SEFJ03 Ice cream and related products
CUUR0000SAF1 Food

The annual national- and State-level sugarbeet and sugarcane prices are obtained from USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Crop Values report, which is typically published in March.

The monthly average net cost of corn starch to U.S. wet-millers in Midwest markets is calculated using the weekly prices of corn and its products (i.e., corn oil, corn gluten feed, and corn gluten meal). The price data comes from the USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service National Grain and Oilseed Processor Feedstuff report.  

Mexico’s monthly prices for estándar (standard) and refinada (refined) sugar are taken from Mexico’s Sistema Nacional de Información e Integración de Mercados (SNIIM). The data reflect the prices of distribution centers located in Central de Abasto de Iztapalapa, Distrito Federal, Mexico City. Mexico’s prices are converted to U.S. dollar terms by using the average monthly U.S. dollar-Mexico peso exchange rate published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank.

The data by calendar quarters, calendar years, and fiscal years are also calculated in price tables where the monthly data are published.

U.S. and Mexican Sugar Supply and Use Data

Estimating the U.S. and Mexican Sugar Supply and Use data is a joint effort of several agencies that are part of USDA's Interagency Commodity Estimates Committee (ICEC). Through the sugar-specific ICEC, USDA estimates supply and use variables that are published monthly in the USDA World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) and the USDA, ERS Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Tables.

The estimates for the United States are largely based on data published by the USDA, Farm Service Agency’s (FSA) Sweetener Market Data report and the USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service’s (FAS) Sugar Monthly Import and Re-Export Data report. The estimates for Mexico are based on data published by the Comité Nacional para el Desarrollo Sustentable de la Caña de Azúcar (CONADESUCA).

Month-to-month changes in the estimates are explained in the USDA, Economic Research Service’s (ERS) monthly Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook report.

Corn Sweetener Supply, Use, and Trade Data

The crop year data on U.S. field corn use are from the USDA, ERS Feed Grain Yearbook Tables. Calendar year domestic production and delivery (domestic disappearance) of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), dextrose, and glucose syrup are derived using internal estimates of deliveries by USDA, ERS Sugar and Sweeteners research staff, whereas the trade data are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Crystalline fructose is included with HFCS-55. Total supply is calculated as the sum of domestic production and imports, whereas total use is the sum of exports and domestic disappearance. Both HFCS-42 and HFCS-55 are converted to dry weight bases by multiplying the commercial (wet) weight by factors of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively.

U.S. Honey Production and Trade Data

Calendar year U.S. honey statistics are calculated using different sources. Data on U.S. honey production (i.e., number of honey-producing colonies, yield per colony, production, and stocks), average prices, and value of production are sourced from the annual USDA, NASS Honey report typically published in March, while trade data are acquired from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau).

USDA, ERS estimates the implied domestic use by using the following formula:

Use = (Beginning Stocks + Production + Imports) – (Exports + Ending Stocks)

Per capita consumption data are calculated by dividing use by the U.S. resident population (as of July 1) data from the U.S. Census Bureau and these data calculations are then converted to a dry basis by multiplying by a factor of 0.78.

U.S. Consumption of Caloric Sweeteners Data

Calendar year estimates for U.S. deliveries of food and beverage use of caloric sweeteners (i.e., sugar, HFCS, dextrose, glucose, honey, and other edible syrups) are combined in this data product.

For sugar, the data on total delivery for human use is used as proxy for domestic consumption. Total sugar delivery comes from the Sweetener Market Data report and is the sum of refined sugar delivered for consumption by domestic beet processors and cane refiners, and direct-consumption imports. Sugar deliveries to Puerto Rico are excluded. The data comes from U.S. sugar crop production and sugar production, deliveries, and stocks table 19.

For HFCS, dextrose, glucose, and other edible syrups, the data on total delivery–which is the sum of domestic production and imports–is also used a proxy for domestic consumption. The delivery data for HFCS, dextrose, and glucose comes from the U.S. corn sweetener supply and use tables 30, 37, and 38, respectively. 

For honey, the data on implied domestic use is used as proxy for domestic consumption. The data comes from the U.S. honey production and trade table 46.

The consumption data are converted to a per capita basis by dividing the total estimated deliveries by U.S. resident population (as of July 1) data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Note that deliveries to Puerto Rico’s residents are excluded. The data are also adjusted for losses (e.g., spoilage, uneaten portions, etc.) and converted to a number of calories and teaspoons of servings consumed daily.

Sugar and Sweetener Trade Data from USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service

In this data product, monthly U.S. trade data for different categories are obtained from the USDA, FAS Sugar Monthly Import and Re-export Data report and summarized in a multi-year, user-friendly format. Categories include imports from the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) raw and refined sugar tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), free trade agreements (FTAs), re-export programs, Mexico, as well as high-duty sugar imports.

Discontinued Series

These tables have been discontinued because data have become unavailable from the original sources:

  • Table 42a—U.S. Blackstrap Molasses Prices
  • Table 42b—U.S Beet Pulp Prices

These tables have been discontinued and information are available from the following agencies:  

  • Table 40–U.S. total imports of sugar syrup (U.S. Census Bureau)
  • Table 41–U.S. Total Imports of Molasses (U.S. Census Bureau)
  • Table 43–U.S. Maple Syrup Production, Imports, Exports, and Prices (USDA, NASS; U.S. Census Bureau)
  • Table 44–U.S. Maple Syrup Production and Value (USDA, NASS)
  • Table 45–Canadian Maple Syrup and Sugar Production, Exports, and Imports

 Strengths and Limitations

The USDA, ERS Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Tables provide an overview for a wide variety of sweetener-related data across multiple data sources and places them in a central place for easy viewing. This is the only publicly available dataset that presents the changes in WASDE estimates each month for the last 3 years. For monthly projections back to 2010, see the consolidated historical WASDE report data found on the WASDE web page.

The availability of yearbook data depends on the availability and accuracy of data from the sources (USDA, AMS; USDA, FSA; USDA FAS; USDA, NASS; U.S. Census Bureau; Government of Mexico, CONADESUCA). As this data product is a compilation of data from numerous sources, users may refer to the source agency for any available information on measures of accuracy.

USDA, NASS provides descriptions of its Methodology and Quality Measures.

The U.S. Census Bureau website provides a perspective on Sources of Non-Sampling Error in its trade data.

USDA, AMS covers procedures for Quality of Information on their website.




 Recommended Citation

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Tables. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.