Characteristics of principal operators of U.S. farms differed by race, 2018–20

Bar chart comparing age, experience, education level, primary occupation, and gender of African-American principal farm operators with that of all others from 2018 to 2020.

USDA, Economic Research Service researchers found that farms operated by African Americans tended to have lower profits and receive lower Government payments compared with other producers. Smaller farm sizes and commodity choices were key factors in these farms’ financial outcomes.

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