Growth rate in global agricultural output slowed over past decade as rate of total factor productivity (TFP) slowed

Bar chart showing average annual global growth rate for total factor productivity, input intensification, irrigation extension, land expansion, and total output from 1961 to 2021.

Over the last six decades, world agricultural output increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 percent, faster than the 1.2 percent average growth rate for input use. This means improvement in total productivity was responsible for nearly half the growth in world agricultural production.

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