Major companies’ spending on crop research and development (R&D) tracks their seed and agrichemical sales revenue

Line chart showing combined research and development spending and sales revenue for the world’s seven largest seed companies and 25 legacy companies between 1990 and 2020.

The U.S. crop seed industry has become more concentrated, with fewer and larger firms dominating seed supply. Seed prices have risen substantially, especially for genetically modified varieties, reflecting the value of improved seed varieties and gains in market power for top seed companies.

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