Definitions and Related Resources
The detailed definition of agricultural R&D can be found in the Current Research Information Systems Manual of Classification for Agricultural and Forestry Research, Education, and Extension. Essentially, public agricultural R&D focuses on the plants and animals used in agricultural production; the natural resources that are used or affected by agriculture production; production systems and their support; food and non-food products; human nutrition, well-being, and food safety; families and community systems; economics, marketing and policy; and research administration. Private R&D includes many of the same research topics, specifically plant breeding, agricultural chemicals, farm machinery, fertilizers, animal health, animal breeding, animal nutrition, and food and kindred products. The National Science Foundation data are defined by agency, in this case, USDA's research agencies. Both NSF and CRIS exclude outlays on "R&D plant," or expenditures on long-lived capital assets.
Private Sector Agricultural R&D Funding: Agricultural R&D funding of non-public institutions, generally private firms. (Private funding of research at public institutions is included under public sector R&D).
Public Sector Agricultural R&D Funding: Agricultural R&D funding that flows through or to a public institution, whether at the federal or State level.
- U.S. Public Agricultural Research: Changes in Funding Sources and Shifts in Emphasis, 1980-2005 focuses on the way public agricultural research is funded in the United States and how changes in funding sources over the last 25 years reflect changes in the type of research pursued.
- Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide describes trends in private agricultural research in the U.S. and globally, disaggregated across various agricultural input industries and the food industry.
- Various uses of R&D data and interpretation of trends are described in Agricultural Research and Development: Public and Private Investments Under Alternative Markets and Institutions