Suresh PersaudAgricultural Economist
Suresh Persaud is with the International Trade and Development Branch of the Market and Trade Economics Division. His core activities focus on the estimation of agricultural trade multipliers, particularly the employment and output effects of U.S. agricultural exports. There are a number of key stakeholders for the Agricultural Trade Multipliers (ATM). These include the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), Office of the Secretary (OSEC), Office of Budget and Policy Analysis (OBPA), the Office of the Chief Economist (OCE), Office of Congressional Relations (OCR), the World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) and Office of the Inspector General (OIG) within USDA. External stakeholders include the Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), the Office of Budget and Management (OMB), and the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR).
Suresh Persaud was previously employed as a Senior Analyst at TXU Electric & Gas, where he developed quantitative systems for the Lone Star Gas acquisition, as well as the methodology for forecasting coincident and non-coincident electric demands. At ERS, he has analyzed various dimensions of agricultural marketing, spanning countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Malawi, Saudi Arabia, India, Japan, and the United States. He has also analyzed key issues within industrial organization such as contract farming, vertically integrated marketing chains, and increasing agribusiness concentration and their implications for the exercise of market power, cost-efficiency, and the behavior of marketing margins.
Ph.D., The Ohio State University. Major: Agricultural Economics
Master of Science, The Ohio State University. Major: Agricultural Economics
Bachelor of Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Major: Economics
“Impact of Agribusiness Market Power on Farmers” (2002), by Suresh Persaud, in Agricultural Policy for the 21st Century, eds. Luther Tweeten and S. Thompson. Iowa State University Press.
“Soybean-Rapeseed Competition in the Japanese Market ”, by Suresh Persaud and Wen Chern,
Journal of Agribusiness, Spring 2002.
“India’s Consumer and Producer Price Policies: Implications for Food Security,” by Persaud, Suresh and Stacey Rosen, Food Security Assessments. Agriculture and Trade Reports. GFA-14, USDA, Economic Research Service, February 2003.
“India’s Edible Oil Sector: Imports Fill Rising Demand,” by Erik Dohlman, Suresh Persaud, and Maurice Landes, Outlook Report No. (OCS090301), USDA, Economic Research Service, November 2003.
India’s Poultry Sector: Development and Prospects, by M. Landes, S. Persaud, & J. Dyck, Agricultural and Trade Report (ATR), USDA, Economic Research Service, February 2004.
Persaud, S.C., and E. Dohlman (2006). “Impacts of Soybean Imports on Indian Processors, Farmers, and Consumers,” Journal of Agribusiness, Fall 2006.
Persaud, Suresh, and M. Landes (2006). The Role of Policy and Industry Structure in India’s Oilseed Markets, Economic Research Report ERR-17, USDA, Economic Research Service, April 2006.
Persaud, Suresh, "India and U.S. Could Gain from Liberalizing Oilseed Trade," Amber Waves, volume 4, issue 3, USDA, Economic Research Service, June 2006.
Liefert, William, and Suresh Persaud (2009). The Transmission of Exchange Rate Changes to Agricultural Producer Prices,” Economic Research Report 76, July 2009, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh, and Birgit Meade (2009). Trade & Development When Exports Lack Diversification, Economic Research Report 77, July 2009, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh, and Birgit Meade (2009). “Trade & Development When Exports Are Volatile,” Amber Waves, December, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh (2010a). Price Volatility in Afghanistan’s Wheat Market, Outlook Report WHS-10d-01. May. USDA, Economic Research Service.
Persaud, Suresh (2010b).”Supply Disruptions Cause Price Spikes in Afghanistan’s Wheat Market,” Amber Waves, June. USDA, Economic Research Service.
Persaud, S., “Long Run Growth Prospects for Wheat Production in Afghanistan,” E-Outlook WHS-11L-01 USDA, Economic Research Service, January 2012.
Persaud, Suresh, 09/2012 “Water Constraints Shape Long-Term Prospects for Wheat Production in Afghanistan,” Amber Waves finding. USDA, Economic Research Service.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2011 Data Overview. February 2013.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2011 Calculator. June 2013, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2012 Data Overview. February 2014.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2012 Calculator. February 2014, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh (2013). Afghanistan’s Wheat Flour Market: Policies and Prospects, Outlook Report WHS-13I-01. USDA, Economic Research Service, October.
Persaud, Suresh, 11/2013 “Flour Imports Help Afghanistan Meet Its Growing Food Needs”, Amber Waves finding. USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2013 Data Overview. February 2015, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2013 Calculator. February 2015, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh, 5/2015 “Calculating the Jobs Associated with U.S. Ag Exports,” Amber Waves Data Feature. USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2014 Data Overview. January 2016, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2014 Calculator. January 2016, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2015 Data Overview. January 2017, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2015 Calculator. January 2017, USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Effects of Trade on the U.S. Economy: 2016 Data Overview. January 2018 USDA.
Persaud, Suresh. Agricultural Trade Multiplier: 2016 Calculator. January 2018, USDA.
Published ERS agricultural trade multipliers (ATMs) have been cited and used by a variety of organizations that have an interest in the data and information provided in the ERS ATMs. Examples are provided below.
(1) ATM cited in “The Economic Benefits of U.S. Trade,” Executive Office of the President of the United States, pp. 4 & 40.
(2) “5 Facts You Should Know About the Role Trade Plays on America's Farms and Ranches”, White House blog June 3 2015.
(3) WhiteHouse.gov : “FACT SHEET: Benefits of Trade to U.S. Agriculture” June 3It cites the 2013 ATM article in context of TPP
Secretary of Agriculture
- Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue cited ATM in statements on (a) Administration’s
Intent to Renegotiate NAFTA, May 18, 2017 and (b) the Creation of Undersecretary for
Trade, May 11, 2017.
- Statement from Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Regarding the Agreement on the Trans-
Pacific Partnership, October 5, 2015.
- Statement from Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack on Expanded Market Access for
U.S. Poultry, Pork and Beef Exports to South Africa, January 7, 2016.
- Statement by Thomas Vilsack Secretary of Agriculture Before the House Committee
on Agriculture, February 24, 2016.
- Statement by Thomas J. Vilsack, Secretary of Agriculture Before the Subcommittee
on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related
Agencies Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate March 9, 2016.
- Statement from Secretary Vilsack on “New Data Showing That Agricultural Exports
Support More Than One Million Jobs”.
- Testimony for hearing before Senate Finance Committee Trade Hearing: The
Secretary testified in support of securing TPA as a top USDA priority. During his
testimony, the Secretary referenced a coalition letter to Congress from 70
organizations (U.S. Business Coalition for TPP) that used the ATM. (April 2015).
- ATM supported Secretary Vilsack's testimony on the state of the rural economy and how
exports support it: “Statement by Thomas Vilsack, Secretary of Agriculture, Before the
Senate Committee on Agriculture, September 21, 2016
(1) Robert Johansson Chief Economist; USDA relied on the ATM in his statement before
House Committee on Agriculture, February 15, 2017.
(2) In statement before House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Livestock
and Foreign Agriculture, February 28, 2017, Joe Steinkamp, Director, American Soybean Association.
(3) In testimony before House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Livestock
and Foreign Agriculture, February 28 2017, Paul Wenger, President, California Farm Bureau Federation.
(4) “Written Testimony of National Pork Producers Council On The Importance of Trade to U.S. Agriculture,” U.S. House of Representatives Agriculture Committee, March 18, 2015
(5) Colorado Farm Bureau in hearing at U.S. House of Representatives before the Committee on Small Business Subcommittee on Agriculture, Energy and Trade, May 22, 2014.
(6) Joint Economic Committee, United States Senate, in “The Economic Contribution of America’s Farmers and the Importance of Agricultural Exports,” September 2013.
United States Trade Representative (USTR)
(1) ATM estimates used in The President’s 2016 Trade Policy Agenda.
(2) “Remarks by Ambassador Michael Froman at the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives
Washington Conference,” Washington, D.C., June 14, 2016 focusing on TPP.
(3) ATM cited by USTR: “Remarks by Ambassador Michael Froman,” February 23, 2015.
(4) Remarks by Ambassador Michael Froman at the White House “Made in Rural America” Forum, August 8, 2014, USTR.
(5) Secretary Vilsack and Ambassador Froman in Joint Ag Radio Broadcast, “Trade and American Agriculture,” March 7, 2014.
(6) ATM cited by USTR in “Benefits of Trade,” 2013.
Congressional Research Service (CRS)
(1) CRS cited ATM in “Major Agricultural Trade Issues in the 115th Congress,” January 2017.
(2) “Agricultural Exports and 2014 Farm Bill Programs: Background and Current Issues,” May 2016
(3) “Agricultural Exports and 2014 Farm Bill,” August 25, 2014.
(4) “USDA Export Market Development and Export Credit Programs: Selected Issues,” October 17, 2017.
Media / Other Outlets
The Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2017. “Why America Is No Longer the World's Bread Basket,”by Jesse Newman and Jacob Bunge. Cites ATM but focuses on bulk exports.
The Wall Street Journal, May 11, 2017. “Farmers Know the Benefits of Trade,” by Sonny Perdue.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (Spring 2013) article by Thilmany and Ahearn (“Beginning Farmers and Local Food Systems”).
The Parliamentary Network on The World Bank & International Monetary Fund.
Choices article by Breuer, Alfred (2013): “Expanding the U.S. Pork Industry Through FTAs”.
Cited by Jason Hafemeister, Acting Deputy Under Secretary, Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services in, Trade: An Economic Engine for Agriculture and Rural America, May 17, 2017.
Heritage Foundation obtained breakdown of economic activity from agricultural trade from ERS ATM publication in “Promoting Free Trade in Agriculture,” July 11, 2016.