David Smallwood

Branch Chief
202-694-5466
dsmallwd@ers.usda.gov

Briefly

David Smallwood is Chief of the Food Assistance Branch in the Food Economics Division. David is responsible for managing and directing research on USDA’s domestic food and nutrition assistance programs including SNAP (formerly food stamps), school feeding programs, and WIC. David has over 30 years of experience at ERS in applied economic analysis of food programs and policies, including studies of the food assistance program impacts on food spending, food prices, meal costs, diet quality, and program participation.

Background

David joined ERS in 1979 as an economist in the food demand research section where his research focused on economic and sociodemographic determinants of consumer demand for food and household expenditure patterns. David has served in positions of increasing responsibility including leader of the Food Policy Research Section, Chief of the Food Economics Branch, Deputy Director for Food Assistance Research, and currently serves as Chief of the Food Assistance Branch which was reorganized in 2011 to include the extramural research component. The Branch's research program is designed to meet the programmatic research and information needs of USDA, Congress, program participants, the research community, and the public at large. David’s own research has been published extensively in professional journals and USDA publications. He has also served as co-editor of the Journal of Agricultural Economics Research.

Education

David received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. degrees from North Carolina State University in Raleigh. His dissertation was on the economic factors affecting the labor supply and retirement decision of self-employed individuals.

Selected Publications

Lin, B.H., S.T. Yen, D. Dong, and D.M. Smallwood. 2010. "Economic incentives for dietary improvement among food stamp recipients," Contemporary Economic Policy 28(4):524-536.

Frazao, E., M.S. Andrews, D.M. Smallwood, and M.A. Prell. 2007. "Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices?” Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective, EIB-29-4, pp. 29-4, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Yen, S.T., B.H. Lin, D.M. Smallwood, and M.S. Andrews. 2004. "Demand for nonalcoholic beverages: The case of low‐income households," Agribusiness 20(3):309-321.

Smallwood, D.M. 2004. "Food consumption data and the evaluation of food assistance programs," presentation made to the Committee on National Statistics workshop titled “Enhancing the Data Infrastructure in Support of Food and Nutrition Programs, Research, and Decision Making.” Washington, DC, May 27-28.

Lin, B.H., D.M. Smallwood, W. Hamilton, and P.H. Rossi. 2004. "Research Designs for Assessing the USDA’s Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs Outcomes—Part II: Impact Evaluation of Demonstrations," Nutrition Today 31(1):40-45, January/February.

Guthrie, J., and D.M. Smallwood. 2003. "Evaluating the Effects of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on Consumer Behavior and Health: Methodological Challenges," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103(12s):42-49. 

Lin, B.H., and D.M. Smallwood. 2003. "Research Designs for Assessing the USDA’s Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs’ Outcomes—Part I: Evaluation of Ongoing National Programs," Nutrition Today 38(4):139-145, July/August.

Yen, S.T., B.H. Lin, and D.M. Smallwood. 2003. "Quasi and Simulated Likelihood Approaches to Censored Demand Systems: Food Consumption by Food Stamp Recipients in the United States," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85(2):458-478. 

Smallwood, D.M. 2002. "Economics, Food Choices and Nutrition," presentation at the Nutrition Week Conference, San Diego, CA, February 23-27.

Oliveira, V., M. Prell, D.M. Smallwood, and E. Frazao. 2001. Infant Formula Prices and Availability: Final Report to Congress, E-FAN-02-001, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, October.

Oliveira, V., M. Prell, D.M. Smallwood, and E. Frazao. 2001. Infant Formula Prices and Availability: An Interim Report to Congress, E-FAN-01-006, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, April.

Blaylock, J.R., D.M. Smallwood, K. Kassel, J.N. Variyam, and L. Aldrich. 1999. "Economics, Food Choices, and Nutrition," Food Policy 24:269-286.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, B.H. Lin, K. Ralston, and D.M. Smallwood. 1999. "Mother's Nutrition Knowledge and Children's Dietary Intakes," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81(2):373-384.

Blisard, N., D.M. Smallwood, and S.M. Lutz. 1999. Food Cost Indexes for Low-Income Households and the General Population, TB-1872, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, February.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1998. "Informational Effects of Nutrient Intake Determinants on Cholesterol Consumption," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 23(1):110-125.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1998. "Reduced-Rank Models for Nutrition Knowledge Assessment," Biometrics 54(4):1654-1661.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, D.M. Smallwood, and P. Basiotis. 1998. USDA's Healthy Eating Index and Nutrition Information, TB-1866, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May.

Kaufman, P., J.M. MacDonald, S.M. Lutz, and D.M. Smallwood. 1997. Do the Poor Pay More for Food? Item Selection and Price Differences Affect Low-Income Household Food Costs, AER-759, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Smallwood, D.M., N. Blisard, D. Blaney, and R. Chandran. 1997. "Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Producer Promotion Program and National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board: The Strategy and Potential Impacts of MilkPEP," in USDA Report to Congress on the Dairy Promotion and Research Program and the National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Chapter 3, July.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1997. Diet-Health Knowledge and Nutrition: The Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol, TB-1855, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1996. "A Probit Latent Variable Model of Nutrition Information and Dietary Fiber Intake," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78(3):628-639, August.

Blaylock, J.R., N. Blisard, D.M. Smallwood, and R. Chandran. 1996. "Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Producer Promotion Program and National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board: The Strategy and Potential Impacts of MilkPEP," in USDA Report to Congress on the Dairy Promotion and Research Program and the National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Chapter 3, July.

Blaylock, J.R., J.N. Variyam, and D.M. Smallwood. 1996. "Dietary Fiber: Is Information the Key?" FoodReview 19(1), Jan-April.

Kuhn, B., P. Dunn, D.M. Smallwood, K. Hanson, J.R. Blaylock, and S. Vogel. 1996. "The Food Stamp Program and Welfare Reform," Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(2):189-198, Spring.

Lutz, S., D.M. Smallwood, and J.R. Blaylock. 1996. "Limited Financial Resources Constrain Food Choices," FoodReview 18(1):13-17, January.

Smallwood, D.M., B. Kuhn, K. Hanson, J.R. Blaylock, and S. Vogel. 1996. "Economic Effects of Refocusing National Food Assistance Efforts," FoodReview 18(1):2-12, January.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1996. "Modeling Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Diet-Disease Awareness: The Case of Dietary Fibre," Statistics in Medicine 15(1):23-35.

Smallwood, D.M., B. Kuhn, K. Hanson, J.R. Blaylock, and S. Vogel. 1995. Proposed Reforms in the Food Stamp Program: Economic Impacts on Agriculture and the Economy of the Work Opportunity Act of 1995, Staff Report No. 9516, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, September.

Variyam, J.N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1995. Modeling Nutrient Intake: The Role of Dietary Information, TB-1842, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May.

D.M. Smallwood (lead ERS analyst). 1995. The Nutrition, Health, and Economic Consequences of Block Grants for Federal Food Assistance Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Service and Economic Research Service, January.

Kuhn, B., D.M. Smallwood, and K. Hanson. 1995. The Economics of Food Assistance Programs, AGES-9507, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Smallwood, D.M. 1995. "Measuring Household Food Security in the Context of Resource Deprivation and Poverty," in Papers and Proceeding of the Conference on Food Security Measurement and Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Center for Health Statistics.

Blaylock, J.R., N. Blisard, and D.M. Smallwood. 1995. "Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Dairy Promotion Program and National Fluid Milk Processors Promotion Board: the Strategy and Potential Impacts of MilkPEP," in USDA Report to Congress on the Dairy Promotion Program, July.

Smallwood, D.M., and M. Andrews. 1995. Data for Analyses of Domestic Food Assistance Issues in Emerging Data Issues in Applied Demand Analysis, S-216 Monograph, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, University of Tennessee and Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, Winter.

Blisard, N., J.R. Blaylock, and D.M. Smallwood. 1994. Dietary Fiber: Effects of Socioeconomic Characteristics and Knowledge, TB-1840, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, December.

Kinsey, J., and D.M. Smallwood. 1994. "Domestic Food Aid Programs," in Food, Agricultural, and Rural Policy Into the Twenty-First Century, M.C. Hallberg, R.G.F. Spitze, and D.E. Ray, eds., pp: 135-152. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Ranney, C., and D.M. Smallwood. 1994. "Impacts on Food Consumption of Joint Food Stamp Program and AFDC Program Participation," in Policy Implications for U.S. Agriculture of Changes in Demand for Food, J. Chalfant, and H. Jensen, eds., pp: 183-192. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Smallwood, D.M., N. Blisard, J.R. Blaylock, and S. Lutz. 1994. Food Spending in American Households, 1980-92, SB-888, and ERS data product, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, October.

Hirschman, J., D.M. Smallwood, and L. Conneen. 1994. Food Costs of Healthy School Meals, FNS Research Report, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, May.

Matsumoto, M., and D.M. Smallwood. 1994. Changes in Commodity Distribution and Food Assistance Programs, AIB-664-72, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May.

Rose, D., D.M. Smallwood, and J.R. Blaylock. 1994. "Social and Economic Predictors of Iron Intake Among Preschool Children in the United States," Abstract, The FASEB Journal 8(4):A274, March.

Smallwood, D.M. 1994. WIC Program Expansion, AIB-664-71, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, March.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1994. "Fiber: Not Enough of a Good Thing," National Food Review 17(1):23-29, January-April.

Smallwood, D.M., N. Blisard, J.R. Blaylock, and S. Lutz. 1994. Food Spending in American Households, 1980-92, SB-888, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, October.

Smallwood, D.M., S. Lutz, J.R. Blaylock, and J. Hirschman. 1994. "Regulatory Cost-Benefit Assessment of School Meal Reforms," in National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Objectives for School Meals; Proposed Rule, Federal Register, pp. 30242-30251, June.

Weimer, J., and D.M. Smallwood. 1994. Evaluation of Nutrition Education Policy, AIB-664-48, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May.

Lutz, S., D.M. Smallwood, and J.R. Blaylock. 1993. Changes in Food Consumption and Expenditures in Low-Income American Households During the 1980s, HNIS-SB-870, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, November.

Brackett, R., D.M. Smallwood, S. Fletcher, and D.L. Horton. 1993. "Food Safety: Critical Points within the Production and Distribution System," in Post Harvest Handling: A Systems Approach, R.L. Shewfelt, and S.E. Prussia, eds. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Smallwood, D.M. 1993. Multiple Participation in Domestic Food Assistance, AIB-664-66, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, August.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1993. "In This Issue," Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 44(4), Summer.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1993. "In This Issue," Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 44(3), Spring.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1992. "In This Issue," Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 44(2), Winter.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1992. "In This Issue," Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 44(1), Fall.

Blaylock, J.R., D.M. Smallwood, and N. Blisard. 1992. How Did Household Characteristics Affect Food Spending in 1980-88? AIB-643, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, February.

Lutz, S., D.M. Smallwood, and J.R. Blaylock. 1992. Changes in Food Consumption and Expenditures in American Households During the 1980s, SB-849, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, December.

Blaylock, J.R., D.M. Smallwood, and N. Blisard. 1992. "Per Capita Food Spending," Food Review 14(3).

Smallwood, D.M., and D. Thomas. 1992. Interim Report on the Development of A WIC Inflation Index, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, August.

Blaylock, J.R., D.M. Smallwood, and N. Blisard. 1992. "Per Capita Food Spending Up 25 Percent in 4 Years," Food Review 15(2):7-11, July-September.

Roberts, T., and D.M. Smallwood. 1991. "Data Needs to Address Food Safety Issues," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73(3):933-942, August.

Smallwood, D.M., N. Blisard, and J.R. Blaylock. 1991. Food Spending in American Households, 1980-88, SB-824, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1991. "Food Safety and the Demand for Food: Methodological Models and Applications," in Economics of Food Safety, J.A. Caswell, ed., pp. 3-27. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.

Smallwood, D.M. 1990. Food Spending in American Households, 1980-86, SB-791, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, March.

Smallwood, D.M., R. Haidacher, and J.R. Blaylock. 1989. "A Review of Research Literature on Meat Demand," in The Economics of Meat Demand: Proceedings of the Conference on the Economics of Meat Demand, R.C. Buse, ed., pp: 93-124. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Department of Agricultural Economics.

Smallwood, D.M. 1989. "Consumer Demand for Safer Foods," National Food Review 12(3), July-September.

Smallwood, D.M., et al., contributing authors. 1989. Drought, Food Prices, and Food Assistance Programs: A Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, March.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1987. "U.S. Demand for Food: Today and Tomorrow," Produce Marketing Almanac.

Smallwood, D.M., J.R. Blaylock, and M. Harris. 1987. Food Spending in American Households: 1982-84, SB-753, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood, contributing authors. 1987. "Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Psychological Variables in Demand Analyses," in Food Demand Analysis: Problems, Issues and Empirical Evidence, R. Raunikar, and C. Huang, eds. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1987. "Intrahousehold Time Allocation: The Case of Grocery Shopper Gender," Journal of Consumer Affairs 21(2):183-201, Winter.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1986. "Projected Growth in American Food Spending," National Food Review, Winter.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1986. U.S. Demand for Food: Household Expenditures, Demographics and Projections, TB-1713, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1986. "Forecasting Performance of Models Using the Box-Cox Transformation," Agricultural Economics Research 38(4):14-24, Fall.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1986. "An Alternative Approach to Defining and Assessing Poverty Thresholds," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics 11(1):100-105, July.

Blaylock, J.R., L. Myers, and D.M. Smallwood. 1986. "Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Advertising on the Demand for Cheese," Report to Congress on the Dairy Promotion Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, July.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1985. "Box-Cox Transformations and a Heteroscedastic Error Variance: Import Demand Equations Revisited," International Statistical Review 53(1):91-97, April. 

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1985. "Analysis of Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Expenditures," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics 10(1):41-54, July.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1985. "Self-Evaluation of Home Food Supplies in Low-Income Households," Southern Agricultural Economics Association Meetings, February. Abstract reprinted in Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(1), July.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1985. Food Spending in American Households, 1980-81, SB-231, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, July.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1984. "Scaling Household Nutrient Data," Agricultural Economics Research 36(1):12-22.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1984. "Reasons for Nonparticipation in the Food Stamp Program," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics 9(1):117-126. 

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1984. "Food Spending and Participation in the Food Stamp Program," Atlantic Economic Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, March.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1984. "Household Characteristics, Frequency of Use, and the Demand for Dairy Products," Dairy Outlook and Situation, special article, June.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1984. Household Expenditures for Fruits, Vegetables and Potatoes, TB-1690, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1984. "Household Characteristics and the Demand for Vegetables and Potatoes," Vegetable Outlook and Situation, special article, July.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1983. "Interpreting the Effects of Binary Variables in Transformed Models," Economics Letters 12(3-4):255-259.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1983. Socioeconomic Characteristics and the Demand for Dairy Products, TB-1686, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1983. "Box-Cox Transformations and Error Term Specification in Demand Models," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics 8(1):68-75.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1982. "Engel Analysis with Lorenz and Concentration Curves," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 64(1):134-139.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1982. "Analysis of Income and Food Expenditure Distributions," The Review of Economics and Statistics 64(1):104-109.

Smallwood, D.M., and J.R. Blaylock. 1981. Impact of Household Size and Income on Food Spending Patterns, TB-1650, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Blaylock, J.R., and D.M. Smallwood. 1981. "Error Term Specification in Transformed Models," American Agricultural Economics Association Meetings, August. Abstract reprinted in American Journal of Agricultural Economics 17(5).

Smallwood, D.M., J.R. Blaylock, and J. Zellner. 1981. "Factors Influencing Food Choice," National Food Review No. 14, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Spring.