Publications

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  • An Economic Chronology of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in North America

    LDPM-14301, June 09, 2006

    The first confirmed cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Canada and the United States had significant effects on trade and prices of U.S. cattle and beef. However, these incidents occurred during a period of low U.S. beef supplies, near-record beef prices, and strong domestic demand for beef that was largely unshaken by the BSE announcement. Also, U.S. reliance on beef and cattle exports, roughly 10 percent of production, was not so great as to cause burdensome increases in domestic supplies. Increased regulations, however, imposed additional costs on beef production and processing sectors.

  • The Role of Policy and Industry Structure in India's Oilseed Markets

    ERR-17, April 19, 2006

    This report reviews recent developments in India's oilseed sector and assesses the implications of current and potential future policy reforms for the oilseed sector. Extensive policy intervention continues to affect oilseed production, trade, and processing in India. Findings suggest that India's current policy of high tariffs on oilseeds and oil affords little benefit to oilseed producers and imposes high costs on consumers. A reduction in oilseed barriers would encourage processors in India to boost capacity utilization using imported oilseeds, resulting in lower processing costs, and increased net revenues and employment. It would also afford U.S. soybean producers an opportunity for exports.

  • Fruit and Vegetable Backgrounder

    VGS-31301, April 17, 2006

    This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.

  • Soybean Backgrounder

    OCS-200601, April 04, 2006

    This report addresses key domestic and international market and policy developments that have affected the U.S. soybean sector in recent years. It provides an analysis of the competition between crops for domestic farmland and the international supply and demand for soybean products. Also covered are domestic and trade policy, farm program costs, and a profile of operating and financial characteristics of U.S. farms producing soybeans.

  • Trade Liberalization in International Dairy Markets: Estimated Impacts

    ERR-16, February 22, 2006

    This report examines issues related to modeling complex policy regimes that affect international dairy markets using a partial equilibrium, multiple-commodity, multiregion model of agricultural policy and trade. Average bound tariffs for dairy remain among the highest of all agricultural commodities and dairy trade is characterized by a large number of megatariffs and tariff-rate quotas (TRQs). In addition to tariffs and TRQs, countries have used milk production quotas to control milk production. Modeling results indicate that liberalization would reduce world dairy product supplies and increase the value of dairy trade.

  • Prospects for India's Emerging Apple Market

    FTS-319-01, January 11, 2006

    Strong economic growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher income consumers. U.S. apples have accounted for the largest share of Indian imports, but face increasing competition from high-quality and low-cost Chinese apples. Although India has a high (50-percent) tariff on imported apples, internal marketing margins-or returns to traders over and above measured costs-account for a significantly larger share of consumer apple prices than do import prices, tariffs, or marketing costs.

  • Resolution of the U.S.- Japan Apple Dispute: New Opportunities for Trade

    FTS-31801, October 26, 2005

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled in June 2005 that Japan's phytosanitary protocol related to fire blight for imports of U.S. apples was not justified and was in breach of Japan's WTO commitments. In August 2005, Japan issued a new phytosanitary protocol that complies with the WTO ruling. With the elimination of the restrictive fire-blight protocol, U.S. producers have a new opportunity to export apples to a high-quality export market, at a significantly lower cost than before. This analysis estimates that over the long run, Japanese apple imports will increase by an average of $144 million per year but that substantial variation from the average import estimate would be likely because of fluctuating market conditions from season to season.

  • Peanut Backgrounder

    OCS-05I01, October 26, 2005

    Like producers of other agricultural commodities, U.S. peanut growers in recent years have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, peanut policy was transformed in 2002 by the elimination of a decades-old marketing quota system. This policy step represented a fundamental change that was accompanied by substantial adjustments in the peanut sector. While demand growth has since been robust, greater supplies and lower prices are raising government expenditures on the peanut program. Federal budget pressures and the implications of trade agreements are important current issues. This report is the first of a series of background reports on key U.S. commodities, which will provide a concise overview of important developments in major sectors of the agricultural economy.

  • U. S. Tobacco Import Update 2003/04

    TBS-25901, September 30, 2005

    U.S. tobacco product manufacturers use foreign-produced leaf in items such as cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and pipe tobacco. Imports peaked in the mid-1990s, but remain at historically high levels. The popularity of generic cigarettes-which use cheaper imported leaf-and increases in domestic leaf prices were the chief reasons for heightened dependence on tobacco imports. Disappearance (use) of foreign-grown tobacco followed a similar upward trend. As tobacco exports and domestic sales of generic cigarettes advanced, imported leaf use rose. During the past year, use of imported tobacco advanced 14 percent. Imported flue-cured and burley use gained and Oriental leaf use was steady. Foreign-grown cigar leaf use advanced as domestic cigar production rose. Imports of flue-cured and burley tobacco continue to be regulated by a tariff-rate quota.

  • Illinois Moves Ahead of Texas as Third Ranked U.S. Agricultural Exporting State in Fiscal 2004

    FAU-102-01, July 08, 2005

    U.S. agricultural exports reached a record $62.2 billion in fiscal 2004, boosted in part by a declining U.S. dollar. Illinois moved ahead of Texas to rank third among U.S. agricultural exporting States after California and Iowa, as fiscal 2004 U.S. agricultural exports continued to expand. Arkansas also replaced Indiana in the top 10 States in 2004. Illinois ranked first in soybean exports; California continued to dominate exports of vegetables and preparations, fruits and preparations, and tree nuts.

  • Growth Prospects for India's Cotton and Textile Industries

    CWS-05D01, June 02, 2005

    India's prospects are changing now that the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) no longer governs world textile trade. Decades of industrial policies that were both inward-oriented and biased toward small-scale production continue to influence India's textile trade prospects. While the recent introduction of genetically-modified (Bt) cotton has revitalized prospects for cotton production, quality issues are likely to hamper Indian cotton sales until the structure of India's cotton marketing system changes significantly.

  • North America Moves Toward One Market

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2005

    The agricultural economies of Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. are increasingly behaving as if they form one market. Not only is U.S. agricultural trade with Canada and Mexico on a clear upward trend, but firms are reorganizing their activities around continental markets for both inputs and outputs.

  • Future of Preferential Trade Programs Concerns

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2005

    Both the U.S. and the EU have granted a large array of trade preferences to developing countries, which allow imports from those countries at reduced tariffs. Ongoing trade negotiations, however, are creating uncertainty about the future of these programs.

  • Market Integration of the North American Animal Products Complex

    LDPM-13101, May 26, 2005

    The beef, pork, and poultry industries of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have tended to become more economically integrated over the past two decades. Sanitary barriers, which are designed to protect people and animals from diseases, are some of the most significant barriers to fuller integration of meat and animal markets. In addition, diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, have caused major disruptions to beef and cattle trade.

  • Market Access for High-Value Foods

    AER-840, February 01, 2005

    This report examines global food trade patterns and the role of WTO market access rules in shaping the composition of global food trade.

  • Market Integration in the North American Hog Industries

    LDPM-12501, November 24, 2004

    About 8 percent of the hogs slaughtered in the United States in 2004 will originate in Canada-many more than 10 years ago. Canadian hogs have flowed into the United States in response to significant structural changes in the U.S. pork industry, concurrent with policy changes in Canada. This, combined with a strong U.S./Canadian dollar exchange rate, created incentives to expand hog operations in Ontario and to start production in Manitoba. In 15 years, an open border and pronounced breeding herd efficiencies helped to increase Canadian hog exports to the United States by more than eight-fold.

  • China's Soybean Imports Expected To Grow Despite Short-Term Disruptions

    OCS-04J01, October 29, 2004

    Rapid demand growth for soybeans and soybean products has outstripped supply in China over the past two decades. Liberalization in production and trade policies has facilitated the country's booming soybean imports, though some recent policy changes have disrupted imports. Despite short-term disruptions, however, China's demand for soybean and soybean products continues to look strong and provides favorable opportunities for U.S. soybean exports.

  • China: A Study of Dynamic Growth

    WRS-0408, October 12, 2004

    China's rapid economic growth has been driven by high rates of investment, gains in productivity, and liberalized foreign trade and investment. China's growth is likely to continue, but the Chinese economy faces some possibly unsustainable pressures.

  • European Union Adopts Significant Farm Reform

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    In 2003 and 2004, the European Union adopted major reforms to its agricultural policy. The changes will have important implications for the way the EU supports its farm sector, for its obligations under current WTO agreements, and for its position in ongoing WTO agricultural negotiations.

  • The Changing World Network of Trade in Textiles and Apparel

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    The structure of the global textile market is fundamentally changing in response to policy reforms stemming from the 1995 Uruguay Round (UR) of the World Trade Organization. These reforms should stimulate growth in textile trade, which already outpaces trade in other sectors of the world economy.