Sort by: Title | Date
  • The Effects of Phytosanitary Regulations on U.S. Imports of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    ERR-168, July 07, 2014

    ERS reports the rates at which inspection of fruit and vegetable imports into the United States result in phytosanitary treatments at the border, and finds little evidence that phytosanitary regulations affect imports significantly.

  • The Estimated Amount, Value, and Calories of Postharvest Food Losses at the Retail and Consumer Levels in the United States

    EIB-121, February 20, 2014

    In the United States, 31 percent-or 133 billion pounds-of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at the retail and consumer levels in 2010 went uneaten. The estimated value of this food loss was $161.6 billion using retail prices. For the first time, ERS estimated the calories associated with food loss: 141 trillion in 2010, or 1,249 calories per capita per day. Errata: On June 27, 2014, Tables 2, 3, and 5 were updated to correct some incorrect values. The errors did not affect summary totals in the tables or report findings.

  • The Influence of Income and Prices on Global Dietary Patterns by Country, Age, and Gender

    ERR-225, March 02, 2017

    Worldwide changes in eating habits are contributing to a global rise in obesity and related diseases across all countries. To address this issue, this report investigates how income and prices influence dietary habits globally.

  • The Spice Market in the United States: Recent Developments and Prospects

    AIB-709, July 03, 1995

    On both a volume and value basis, the United States is the world's largest spice importer and consumer, with both imports and consumption on an uptrend for the past 10 years. While the United States imports more than 40 separate spices, seven of these (vanilla beans, black and white pepper, capsicums, sesame seed, cinnamon, mustard, and oregano) account for more than 75 percent of the total annual value of spice imports. While the United States imports spices from more than 50 countries, 5 of these countries (Indonesia, Mexico, India, Canada, and China) regularly account for one-half of the annual value of spice imports. The United States produces nearly 40 percent of its annual spice needs, with imports supplying the remainder. Growing domestic production consists of capsicum peppers, mustard seed, dehydrated onion and garlic, and herbs. U.S. spice exports have also been expanding in recent years, led by dehydrated garlic and onion. Rising domestic use of spices reflects growing Hispanic and Asian populations, a trend toward the use of spices to compensate for less salt and lower fat levels in foods, and heightened popularity of ethnic foods from Asia and Latin America.

  • The U.S. Produce Industry and Labor: Facing the Future in a Global Economy

    ERR-106, November 12, 2010

    Fruit and vegetable production is a labor-intensive process, and over half of the hired workers employed by growers are believed to be unauthorized immigrants. Reforms to immigration laws, if they reduce the labor supply, may increase the cost of farm labor. The authors of this report assess how particular fruit and vegetable commodities might adjust if labor rates increased.

  • The U.S. and Mexican Dry Bean Sectors

    VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010

    This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.

  • The USDA Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program Evaluation

    AIB-792-6, November 12, 2004

    National data on the diets of U.S. children and adolescents indicate they are consuming more fat and saturated fat than recommended while their intakes of fruits and vegetables fall well below recommended levels.

  • U.S. Agricultural Trade Update-State Exports

    FAU-123, June 29, 2007

    U.S. agricultural exports reached a record in fiscal 2006 at $68.7 billion, some $6.2 billion higher than the record set in fiscal 2005. California, Iowa, Texas, and Illinois continued their reign as top exporting States, while Minnesota dropped to seventh position behind Nebraska and Kansas. North Carolina joined the top 10, displacing North Dakota at the number nine position. Feed grain exports moved ahead of soybean exports, with Iowa and Illinois dominating in those markets. California continued to dominate vegetables, fruits, tree nuts, seeds, and dairy.

  • U.S. Food Commodity Consumption Broken Down by Demographics, 1994-2008

    ERR-206, March 30, 2016

    ERS drew on national dietary intake surveys to break down the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data and show food consumption by demographic characteristics for 63 commodities (who eats what food commodities and how much).

  • U.S. Fresh Produce Markets: Marketing Channels, Trade Practices, and Retail Pricing Behavior

    AER-825, September 23, 2003

    Retail consolidation, technological change in production and marketing, and growing consumer demand have altered the traditional market relationships between producers, wholesalers, and retailers.

  • U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Who, What, Where, and How Much

    AIB-792-2, November 12, 2004

    For good health, USDA urges American consumers to eat more fruits and vegetables-5 to 9 servings per day-and to choose a healthier, more varied mix of these foods. The variety of produce available to Americans has blossomed in recent years, but are consumers responding? The first step in determining this is to ask who eats what, where, and how much. Since 2000, ERS has been analyzing data from national USDA food consumption surveys, and we are ready to share some highlights.

  • U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Imports Outpace Exports

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2005

    The U.S., traditionally a net exporter of fruits and vegetables, has become a large net importer, with imports more than doubling between 1994 and 2004 to reach $12.7 billion. U.S. exports of fruits and vegetables have also risen but less rapidly, reaching $9.7 billion in 2004.

  • Understanding Fruit and Vegetable Choices: Economic and Behavioral Influences

    AIB-792-1, November 12, 2004

    Nutritionists recommend a variety of vegetables, including regular servings of deep-yellow and dark-green vegetables prepared with limited amounts of fats and sugars. In contrast, the most popular vegetable choice of most Americans is fried potatoes.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: April 2002

    VGS-290, April 18, 2002

    According to preliminary ERS estimates, per capita vegetable and melon use (consumption) declined 1 percent in 2001 to 448 pounds. Fresh-market use (excluding potatoes) was unchanged at 173 pounds while freezing (down 1 percent) and canning (down 3 percent) use were lower. Per capita use of potatoes, the largest vegetable category, increased 1 percent to 140 pounds, reflecting lower prices stemming from the record-large 2000 fall potato crop. The forecast for 2002 suggests that per capita vegetable and melon use will rise 1 percent led by increased use of processing vegetables.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: August 2001

    VGS-285, August 21, 2001

    This summer (largely July-September 2001), fresh-market vegetable and melon area for harvest is forecast to rise 2 percent from a year ago. Increased acreage is a reflection of stronger grower prices since last summer. California, accounting for 50 percent of this year's summer-season area, increased acreage 3 percent. New York, the second leading summer-season producer, with 11 percent of acreage, expects to harvest 5 percent more area than a year ago despite an unusually cool, wet spring which hindered planting.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: August 2002

    VGS-292, August 22, 2002

    The first estimate for the 2002 dry edible bean crop indicates a 39-percent increase from a year ago. Harvested area and per-acre yields are both expected to increase. U.S. dry edible bean growers reacted to depleted stocks and the highest prices in a decade by increasing area for harvest to 1.69 million acres-up 36 percent from a year earlier but 2 percent below the average of the previous 10 years. Harvested area was expected to be up in four of the top five States, with drought reducing area in Colorado 19 percent. During the first 11 months of 2001/02, grower prices for dry beans averaged 52 percent above a year ago. However, prices for many bean classes have begun to weaken in anticipation of increased production this season.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: August 2009

    VGS-333-01, August 19, 2009

    Growth over time in the demand for fresh vegetables for at-home consumption may slow because of differences in the behavior of younger and older birth cohorts. A birth cohort includes people born in the same year and is similar in concept to a generation. People born around the same point in history may share common behaviors that they carry throughout their lives independent of age. People born more recently are found to spend less money for fresh vegetables than older Americans do. Changes in how people purchase and consume food may help to explain these effects.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: August 2011

    VGS-346, August 25, 2011

    The farm value of all mushroom (Agaricus and others) sales during the 2010/11 crop year (July-June) reached a new high of $1 billion, up 8 percent from a year earlier. Partly reflecting modest gains in the economy, mushroom sales volume rose 9 percent to 862 million pounds, the second highest level on record. In line with higher output, per capita disappearance (use) of all mushrooms grew 8 percent to 3.82 pounds in 2010/11.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: December 2001

    VGS-288, December 14, 2001

    The November 2001 estimate of U.S. fall-season potato production is 401 million hundredweight (cwt). When added to the winter, spring, and summer potato crops, this places total production for the 2001 crop year at 442 million cwt, 14 percent below a year ago. In response to reduced production, U.S. shipping-point (grower) prices for all potatoes have averaged 32 percent higher than a year ago for September through November. Prices received by growers for this period were higher than a year ago throughout the country, with some of the largest percentage gains in Colorado (up 126 percent) and California (46 percent). Some other major growing areas realizing higher grower prices are Idaho (up 42 percent), Washington (24 percent), North Dakota (14 percent), and Maine (8 percent).

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: December 2003

    VGS-300, December 18, 2003

    Total potato production for the 2003 crop year is forecast at 457 million cwt-down less than 1 percent from 2002. Despite the slight drop in production, however, U.S. grower prices for all potatoes have averaged 19 percent below a year ago and 14 percent below 2 years ago for the September - November period. These lower early-season grower prices, combined with lower retail prices for potatoes and frozen french fries, may be a reflection of weaker demand for potatoes and potato products.