Publications

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  • Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook: September 2016

    FTS-363, September 30, 2016

    U.S. apple production to increase this fall, but lack of competing supplies from previous harvest likely to hold early-season prices strong. This large apple crop will coincide with smaller pear crop this fall.

  • Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook: September 2017

    FTS-365, September 29, 2017

    U.S. apple production to decline this fall and will coincide with a smaller pear crop. Increased storage-apple supplies from previous harvest, however, will likely mitigate upward pressure on early-season prices.

  • Fruit and Vegetable Backgrounder

    VGS-31301, April 17, 2006

    This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.

  • Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Looking Ahead to 2020

    AIB-792-7, November 12, 2004

    Rising income, higher educational attainment, improved diet and health knowledge, more frequent eating out, and a growing population that will become older and more diverse in race and ethnicity are all shaping U.S. agricultural consumption. These effects are analyzed using data from the 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. We then project the consumption of 25 food groups and 22 commodity groups, including various fruit and vegetable groups, to 2020.

  • Fruit and Vegetable Planting Restrictions: Analyzing the Processing Cucumber Market

    VGS-342-02, February 10, 2011

    This report highlights the anticipated consequences of the 2008 Farm Act's Planting Transferability Pilot Program (PTPP) on processing (pickling) cucumber plantings. PTPP allows program crop growers in seven Upper Midwestern States to reduce base acres and plant select vegetables for processing on those acres without reducing Government payments on their remaining base acres.

  • Fruit and Vegetables in the Limelight

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2006

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable sector finds itself at the center of several hot issues, including immigration reform, the quality of U.S. diets and rising imports of fruits and vegetables.

  • Fruit and Vegetables in the Limelight

    Amber Waves, May 01, 2007

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable sector finds itself at the center of several hot issues, including immigration reform, the quality of U.S. diets and rising imports of fruits and vegetables.

  • Global Trade Patterns in Fruits and Vegetables

    WRS-0406, June 01, 2004

    International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions-the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) area, and Asia (East, Southeast, and South)-have remained as both the major destinations and sources of supply. A substantial share of their trade is intraregional, particularly that of the EU. All the three regions, however, depend on Southern Hemisphere countries for imports of juices and off-season fresh fruits, and on equatorial regions for bananas, the leading fresh fruit import. In addition to global north-south trading, due mostly to the counter-cyclical seasons of the two hemispheres, Asian trade has also become much more important since the 1980s as incomes and populations have grown and policies changed.

  • Global Trade in Fruits and Vegetables Brings Variety to the Nation's Grocery Stores

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2004

    Twenty years ago, shoppers at U.S. grocery stores contented themselves with apples, pears, oranges, and bananas. Now, thanks to an acceleration of global trade in fruits and vegetables, mangoes, papayas, avocados, kiwi fruit, and more are available on produce shelves year round. This growth has been facilitated by trade agreements, rising consumer demand, and vastly improved technology that allows perishable fruit to be transported long distances.

  • Greenhouse Tomatoes Change the Dynamics of the North American Fresh Tomato Industry

    ERR-2, April 01, 2005

    The North American greenhouse tomato industry has grown rapidly since the early 1990s and now plays a major role in the fresh tomato industry. ERS looked at consumption and price trends, competition from Mexico and Canada, and the rising industry's effect on the entire fresh field tomato sector.

  • How Low has the Farm Share of Retail Food Prices Really Fallen?

    ERR-24, August 15, 2006

    ERS estimates the share of retail food prices farmers earn on two commodity groups-fruits and vegetables. While the farm share has been shrinking, the decrease is less than previously believed.

  • How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    AIB-792-4, November 12, 2004

    Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  • How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    AIB-790, July 20, 2004

    This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or less per serving. Consumers can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  • How Transportation Costs Affect Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    ERR-160, November 26, 2013

    The transmission of fuel prices to wholesale produce prices depends not only on distance from farm to sales point, but also on the transportation method, import shares and seasonality issues, and perishability.

  • Imports Contribute to Year-Round Fresh Fruit Availability

    FTS-356-01, December 30, 2013

    Imports of fresh fruits complement domestic production and contribute to the year-round availability of fresh fruit in the U.S. market. Imports also help lower domestic prices and smooth out price fluctuations.

  • Imports From China and Food Safety Issues

    EIB-52, July 07, 2009

    Food imports from China more than tripled in value from 2001 to 2008. ERS indicates the types of foods imported, analyzes FDA refusals of shipments, and describes China's food safety regulation.

  • Imports of Many Fruits and Vegetables Dominated By Few Source Countries

    Amber Waves, August 04, 2014

    National sources of U.S. fruit and vegetable imports tend to be relatively concentrated among a few countries. ERS research suggests that this is due mainly to market forces, rather than differing phytosanitary regulations.

  • India’s High Internal Marketing Costs Reduce Apple Demand

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2006

    India's imports of apples are hindered not only by high tariffs, but also by high internal marketing costs which raise the price of the final product.

  • Labor-Intensive U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Industry Competes in a Global Market

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2010

    Reduction in the supply of workers that could make agricultural labor more expensive for the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry may impact industry competitiveness, but the effects would vary by commodity.

  • Low-Income Households' Expenditures on Fruits and Vegetables

    AIB-792-5, November 12, 2004

    Both public and private organizations have noted that Americans generally eat less fruits and vegetables than is recommended in the Food Guide Pyramid. For example, the Produce for Better Health Foundation found that only 38 percent of Americans consume the recommended number of servings of vegetables, while only 23 percent consume the recommended number of servings of fruit. Even more troubling, low-income households eat even less fruits and vegetables than higher income households.