Publications

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  • ERS Tracks Meat Prices at the Retail, Wholesale, and Farm Levels

    Amber Waves, October 05, 2015

    Each month the Economic Research Service calculates farm-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail price spreads for beef, pork, and broilers. These price spreads show the difference between what consumers pay for a certain type of meat at the retail store and what producers actually receive for that meat.

  • Economic Impacts of Foreign Animal Disease

    ERR-57, May 28, 2008

    As more is learned about the impacts of foreign animal-disease outbreaks, questions arise regarding the efficacy of existing animal disease-impact models for capturing the array of effects across many economic sectors and time. Previous models lacked adequate treatment of either the economic components or the epidemiological components, and, in some cases, both. This report presents a quarterly livestock and crop modeling framework in which epidemiological model results are integrated with an economic model of the U.S. agricultural sector to estimate the economic impacts of outbreaks of foreign-source livestock diseases. The framework can be applied to many livestock diseases and this study uses the model to assess the results of a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Model results show large trade-related losses for beef, beef cattle, hogs, and pork, even though relatively few animals are destroyed. The best control strategies prove to be those that reduce the duration of the outbreak.

  • Economic and Structural Relationships in U.S. Hog Production

    AER-818, February 01, 2003

    Rapid change in the size and ownership structure of U.S. hog production has created new and varied challenges for the industry. This report describes an industry becoming increasingly concentrated among fewer and larger farms, and becoming more economically efficient. These changes have not come without problems. The increasing market control and power concentrated among packers and large hog operations, and the manure management problem posed by an increasing concentration of hog manure on fewer operations, are paramount concerns. Addressing these concerns through regulations would likely impose economic costs that could be passed on to consumers. In addition, the relative mobility of the hog industry means that regulations could result in significant changes in the location of hog production facilities, with ripple effects in local economies. Balancing environmental and economic interests will challenge policymakers dealing with the implications of structural change in U.S. hog production.

  • Economics of Antibiotic Use in U.S. Livestock Production

    ERR-200, November 24, 2015

    How widespread is use of antibiotics in U.S. livestock? What would be the affect on farmer practices and profits, and on supplies and prices, if antibiotic use for productivity-enhancing purposes were limited?

  • Effects of Large-Scale Hog Production on Local Labor Markets

    Amber Waves, August 05, 2013

    For counties with large-scale hog operations, the average change in the number of hogs at these operations over each 5-year-period between 1992 and 2007 was 8,473. Each additional 1,000 hogs at large-scale hog facilities in a county generated 0.96 net jobs in the county, with gains in some sectors and losses in others.

  • Estimating the Substitution of Distillers' Grains for Corn and Soybean Meal in the U.S. Feed Complex

    FDS-11I01, October 13, 2011

    Corn-based dry-mill ethanol production and its coproducts - notably distillers' dried grains with soluble (DDGS) - have surged in recent years. The report estimates the potential substitution of DDGS for corn and soybean meal in livestock feeding and the impact of substitution upon the U.S. feed complex.

  • Ethanol Expansion in the United States: How Will the Agricultural Sector Adjust?

    FDS-07D-01, May 18, 2007

    A large expansion in ethanol production is underway in the United States. Cellulosic sources of feedstocks for ethanol production hold some promise for the future, but the primary feedstock in the United States currently is corn. Market adjustments to this increased demand extend well beyond the corn sector to supply and demand for other crops, such as soybeans and cotton, as well as to U.S. livestock industries. USDA's long-term projections, augmented by farmers' planting intentions for 2007, are used to illustrate anticipated changes in the agricultural sector.

  • Factors Affecting U.S. Pork Consumption

    LDPM-13001, May 12, 2005

    Pork ranks third in annual U.S. meat consumption, behind beef and chicken, averaging 51 pounds per person. The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) indicates that most pork is consumed at home. Pork consumption is highest in the Midwest, followed by the South, the Northeast, and the West. Rural consumers eat more pork than urban/suburban consumers. Pork consumption varies by race and ethnicity. Higher income consumers tend to consume less pork. Everything else remaining constant, demographic data in the CSFII suggests future declines in per capita pork consumption as the share of Hispanics and the elderly in the population rises because those two groups eat less pork than the national average. However, total U.S. pork consumption will grow because of an expansion of the U.S. population.

  • Factors Shaping Expanding U.S. Red Meat Trade

    LDPM-175-01, February 10, 2009

    U.S. imports and exports of red meats-beef, pork, lamb, and mutton-have expanded rapidly over the last several decades, linking livestock sectors of the United States to those of several major trading partners. Factors driving this trade growth include not only rising incomes, but also the preference of U.S. and foreign consumers for a greater variety of red meat cuts, facilitated by the expansion of free trade agreements. Changes in currency values, including the recent depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the currencies of key trading partners, have also been important influences in expanding trade in U.S. red meat products. Domestic production continues to provide the main share of beef and pork consumed in the United States, while the share of U.S. lamb consumption from imports has increased significantly. While the red meat (and poultry) markets have been punctuated by animal disease issues over the last few years, the integration of trade is expected to continue.

  • Farm Size Behind Regional Differences in Hog Output and Productivity

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2008

    In recent years, substantial geographical shifts in hog production have coincided with differences in hog farm productivity growth rates. ERS research shows that changes in hog farm size explain much of the observed regional variation.

  • Feed Grains Outlook: January 2015

    FDS-15A, January 14, 2015

    The January 2015 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2014/15 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: August 2016

    FDS-16H, August 16, 2016

    The August 2016 Feed Outlook report contains projections for the 2015/16 and 2016/17 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: April 2009

    FDS-09D01, April 01, 2009

    The byproducts of making ethanol, sweeteners, syrups, and oils used to be considered less valuable than the primary products. But the increased livestock-feed market for such byproducts in the past few years has switched that perception to one of the ethanol industry making grain-based "co-products" that have market value separate from the primary products. Co-products such as dried distiller's grains, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, corn oil, solubles, and brewer's grains have become economically viable components, along with traditional ingredients (such as corn, soybean meal, and urea), in feed rations.

  • Feed Outlook: April 2014

    FDS-14D, April 11, 2014

    The April 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: April 2015

    FDS-15D, April 13, 2015

    The April 2015 Feed Outlook report contains projections for the 2014/15 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates report.

  • Feed Outlook: April 2016

    FDS-16D, April 14, 2016

    The April 2016 Feed Outlook report contains projections for the 2015/16 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: August 2014

    FDS-14H, August 14, 2014

    The August 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2014/15 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: August 2015

    FDS-15H, August 14, 2015

    The August 2015 Feed Outlook report contains projections for the 2015/16 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Feed Outlook: December 2012

    FDS-12L, December 13, 2012

    Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.

  • Feed Outlook: December 2013

    FDS-13L, December 12, 2013

    Imports Bump Up Feed Grain Supplies as Ethanol and Exports Boost Use and Stocks Slip.