Publications

Sort by: Title | Date
  • Rice: Background and Issues for Farm Legislation

    RCS-0601-01, August 01, 2001

    This report provides background information for addressing policy issues facing the U.S. rice industry as Congress debates provisions of new farm legislation. The report includes an examination of the structure of the U.S. rice sector and the global rice market to provide a backdrop for discussion of current policy issues. It also includes a description of the major features of the government rice program as well as a summary of issues related to global and multilateral trade agreements.

  • Soybeans: Background and Issues for Farm Legislation

    OCS-0701-01, August 01, 2001

    Congress is considering new farm legislation to replace the expiring Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. As background for these deliberations, this report provides information on supply, demand, and prices in the U.S. soybean sector. Domestic policy effects on U.S. exports and trade agreements are also evaluated because international trade is an important component of soybean demand. A description of the major features of the current soybean program is included, as well as a discussion of some proposed policy changes.

  • Wheat: Background and Issues for Farm Legislation

    WHS-0701-01, August 01, 2001

    Congress is considering new farm legislation to replace the expiring Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996. As background for these deliberations, this report provides information on supply, demand, and prices in the U.S. wheat sector and examines alternative policy choices.

  • Household Food Spending by Selected Demographics in the 1990s

    AIB-773, August 15, 2001

    Average per-person total food expenditures, adjusted for inflation, declined about 7 percent between 1990 and 1998, from $2,189 to $2,037. This decline resulted primarily from the average at-home food expenditures per person declining by about 6 percent and the away-from-home food expenditures declining by about 8 percent. Price-adjusted food spending reflects changes in the real price of food as well as any quantity adjustments made by consumers. However, the national average masks the fact that some population subgroups had significantly higher or lower food expenditures than average. For example, while total food spending declined for all demographic groups except female-headed and Black households, these two demographic groups still had the lowest per capita spending. In contrast to this, per-person total food expenditures were greatest for households in the highest income quintile, for one-person households, and for house-holds with heads between 55 and 64 years of age.

  • State Use of Funds To Increase Work Slots for Food Stamp Recipients: Report to Congress

    FANRR-15, August 16, 2001

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 more than doubled funding to States for USDA's Food Stamp Employment and Training Program. The law required States to spend at least 80 percent of the funding on services that can fulfill the work requirements imposed by welfare reform legislation in 1996 on able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs). This report fulfills the Act's mandate to USDA to examine and report on how States use the new funds to create work opportunities for ABAWDs and if this is done in an efficient and effective manner. The results show that total E&T Program spending increased, though States used less of their Federal grant allocations and more of State matching funds. States make specific recommendations for improving the program.

  • State Use of Funds To Increase Work Slots for Food Stamp Recipients: State Data Collection Instruments

    EFAN-01007, August 20, 2001

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 more than doubled funding to States for USDA's Food Stamp Employment and Training Program. The law required States to spend at least 80 percent of the funding on services that can fulfill the work requirements imposed by welfare reform legislation in 1996 on able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs). This report fulfills the Act's mandate to USDA to examine and report on how States use the new funds to create work opportunities for ABAWDs and if this is done in an efficient and effective manner. The results show that total E&T Program spending increased, though States used less of their Federal grant allocations and more of State matching funds. States make specific recommendations for improving the program. This report is the survey instrument used for the study.

  • Vegetables and Melons Outlook: August 2001

    VGS-285, August 21, 2001

    This summer (largely July-September 2001), fresh-market vegetable and melon area for harvest is forecast to rise 2 percent from a year ago. Increased acreage is a reflection of stronger grower prices since last summer. California, accounting for 50 percent of this year's summer-season area, increased acreage 3 percent. New York, the second leading summer-season producer, with 11 percent of acreage, expects to harvest 5 percent more area than a year ago despite an unusually cool, wet spring which hindered planting.

  • Second Food Security Measurement and Research Conference, Volume II: Papers

    FANRR-11-2, August 24, 2001

    The Second Food Security Measurement and Research Conference (February 23-24, 1999) was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service and Economic Research Service and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' National Center for Health Statistics. The conference was part of an ongoing program of Federal food security research, the goal of which has been to establish a stable measurement strategy to assess annually the food security status of the U.S. population. This report is Volume II of a two-volume set and contains a set of research papers that conference participants prepared to provide further detail on the content and findings of some research presented at the conference.

  • Income and Food Expenditures Decomposed by Cohort, Age, and Time Effects

    TB-1896, August 24, 2001

    This report expands aggregate lifecycle expenditure analysis by separating generational or cohort effects from aging effects. This is important since different generations or age groups may exhibit expenditure patterns that are the result of higher incomes and/or different tastes and preferences. Ignoring these generational effects produces income and consumption age profiles that can be misleading. With accurate consumption and age profiles, policymakers can gain a better idea of food intake patterns by cohort, and there-by identify groups that may need additional diet and health information.

  • Public Sector Plant Breeding in a Privatizing World

    AIB-772, August 30, 2001

    Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private activities in wheat breeding differ widely in Western Europe, different regions of the United States, Canada, and Australia. Public sector involvement in plant breeding may have benefits to society that the private sector's activities may not, fostering greater sharing of information and more work on traits of plant varieties (such as environmental suitability and nutritional characteristics) that may be under-researched by private breeding programs.

  • Trade Issues Facing U.S. Horticulture in the WTO Negotiations

    VGS-285-01, August 30, 2001

    This article discusses issues affecting U.S. trade in fruits and vegetables that are likely to be considered during upcoming trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Tariff reductions, tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies, and domestic support are discussed, as are the impacts of anti-dumping and countervailing measures and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement on horticultural trade flows.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Corn Farms

    SB-974-1, August 30, 2001

    The production costs for a bushel of corn ranged from an average of $1.19 per bushel for those farmers in the lowest quartile to $3.67 per bushel for corn farmers in the highest quartile, ranked by production costs per bushel. Producers with high corn production costs per bushel tended to have both lower than average yields and higher than average corn costs per acre. Corn producers in the Heartland and Prairie Gateway had lower corn production costs per bushel than corn producers in the Northern Crescent and Southeast. Part-time farmers and farmers with small corn acreage tended to have high corn production costs per bushel.

  • Major Uses of Land in the United States, 1997

    SB-973, September 08, 2001

    This report provides land use estimates for major land uses in the United States, by State for 1997.

  • Infant Formula Prices and Availability: Final Report to Congress

    EFAN-02001, October 01, 2001

    This final report responds to Congress's request for a study on the number of suppliers of infant formula in each State or major marketing area and comparison of the costs of formula that is included in USDA's WIC program versus that of other formula.

  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: 2000 in Review and 2001 Outlook

    LDPM-8701, October 03, 2001

    This report examines changes in the livestock industry in 2000 and provides initial assessments of 2001 based on forecasts from the August 2001 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates. Strong economic growth in the United States in 2000 boosted the demand for high quality cuts of red meats, thereby increasing wholesale prices of beef, pork and lamb. However, broiler and farm milk prices declined compared with 1999. Poultry output remained strong in 2000 as exports increased by 9 percent. Extreme weather conditions may dampen beef production in 2001. U.S. pork exports should increase by 18 percent in 2001.

  • Displaced Workers: Differences in Nonmetro and Metro Experience in the Mid-1990s

    RDRR-92, October 15, 2001

    During 1995-97, 3.4 million workers were displaced from their jobs, of whom 500,000 (15 percent) were nonmetro workers. This report examines the displaced workers' experience in metro and nonmetro areas using survey and administrative data. Although nonmetro workers were less likely to be displaced than metro workers, they had a lower probability of finding employment after losing their jobs. Nonmetro workers were less likely to be covered by legislation providing advance notice of job loss and providing retirement and health insurance benefits after being laid off. A variety of programs are available to assist displaced workers in nonmetro areas.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cotton Farms

    SB-974-2, October 26, 2001

    Producing a pound of cotton cost U.S. farmers 38 cents in operating costs and another 35 cents in overhead costs in 1997, the latest survey year. Individual farm costs ranged from 18 cents to $1.97 per pound for operating costs and from 28 cents to $2.96 per pound for total costs. The Prairie Gateway had the largest proportion of cotton farms while the largest cotton farms and the largest share of cotton production were in the Fruitful Rim.

  • Private Investment in Agricultural Research and International Technology Transfer in Asia

    AER-805, November 06, 2001

    This report provides original estimates of private sector agricultural research and development efforts in Asia during the 1990s. The report examines seven Asia countries (India, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and China). The examination provides an assessment of the trends in private sector R&D developments in the agricultural inputs industries in each country.

  • China: Agriculture in Transition

    WRS-012, November 08, 2001

    The Chinese grain sector faces pressure from both external competition and internal shifts in consumer preferences that could reshape the industry. The report focuses on the long-term expectations for China's agriculture in the face of continued growth and openness to trade.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cow-Calf Operations

    SB-974-3, November 16, 2001

    Differences in regional conditions were the chief influence on variations in cow-calf production costs across the United States. Cow-calf operators in the West and Southern Plains have significant cost advantages over operators in other regions because, with a longer grazing season, their herds require less supplemental forage during the winter. The larger acreage size of operations in the West and Southern Plains also can support more cows and take advantage of economies of scale (spreading the fixed investment over more units of production). Because of the harsher climate, operations in the North Central region and Northern Plains spend significantly more to maintain their herds. Cowherds in the Southeast are primarily on small and part-time operations. These findings are based on the 1996 Agricultural Resource Management Study (ARMS), the most recent national survey of cow-calf producers.