Publications

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  • Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade: November 2016

    AES-97, November 30, 2016

    This report discusses November 2016 USDA forecasts for U.S. agricultural trade in FY2017. Exports are forecast at $134.0 billion in FY2017 and imports are expected to reach $112.5 billion, resulting in a trade surplus of $21.5 billion.

  • Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade: November 2017

    AES-102, November 30, 2017

    This report discusses November 2017 USDA forecasts for U.S. agricultural trade in FY2018. Exports are forecast at $140.0 billion in FY2018 and imports are expected to reach $117.0 billion, resulting in a trade surplus of $23.0 billion.

  • Peanut Outlook: Impacts of the 2008-09 Foodborne Illness Outbreak Linked to Salmonella in Peanuts

    OCS-10A-01, February 01, 2010

    The 2009 foodborne illness outbreak linked to Salmonella in peanut products resulted in one of the largest food safety recalls ever in the United States. The source of the outbreak handled a small share of the U.S. peanut supply, but the scope of the recalls was magnified because the peanut products were used as ingredients in more than 3,900 products. Consumer purchases of peanut-containing products initially slowed during the recalls, but retail purchases soon returned to normal and peanut processing held steady. The recalls do not appear to have had a lasting impact on peanut demand and production.

  • Peru: An Emerging Exporter of Fruits and Vegetables

    FTS-34501, December 16, 2010

    This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies-asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes-highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. growers.

  • Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008

    EIB-124, May 16, 2014

    Pesticide use on 21 selected crops more than tripled from 1960 to 1981, but has since declined from 632 million pounds to 516 million pounds in 2008, partly due to more efficient active ingredients, Integrated Pest Management, and GE seeds.

  • Policy Reform in the Tobacco Industry: Producers Adapt to a Changing Market

    EIB-77, May 26, 2011

    ERS analyzes tobacco producers' adjustments in production, investment, labor requirements, and contracting practices following elimination of tobacco quotas and tobacco price supports.

  • Possible Economic Consequences of Reverting to Permanent Legislation or Eliminating Price and Income Supports

    AER-526, January 01, 1985

    If the agricultural legislation expiring in 1985 is not replaced, farm price and income supports will revert from the programs provided for in the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 and subsequent legislation to the programs provided for in the permanent support statutes. Reverting to the permanent support programs, dating back in some cases to the 1930s, would raise price and income support levels significantly and greatly reduce the role of market forces in determining farm returns. Conversely, if all price and income supports were eliminated in 1985, Government intervention in the market would end and supply and demand forces would determine farm returns. Adopting either of these two outerbound policy alternatives would have significant and far-reaching impacts on farm operations, the agribusiness sector, the general economy, and ultimately the world market for farm products.

  • Potential Farm-Level Effects of Eliminating Direct Payments

    EIB-103, November 16, 2012

    A number of Farm Act proposals call for ending the direct payment program. ERS analysis suggests that for the majority of farms receiving direct payments, this would not result in substantial decline in financial well-being.

  • Precision Agriculture Technologies and Factors Affecting Their Adoption

    Amber Waves, December 05, 2016

    Three common precision agricultural information technologies are global positioning system (GPS) guidance systems, GPS yield and soil monitors/maps, and variable-rate input application technologies (VRT). Research shows these technologies had similar positive, but small, impacts on corn profits of between 1 and 3 percent in 2010.

  • Production Costs and Returns for Tobacco in 2002

    TBS-25601, June 21, 2004

    Both the gross value and the cash costs per acre for tobacco were lower in 2002 than in 2001, with the gross value of production falling more than the decline in cash costs. Consequently, net returns per acre were lower for burley and flue-cured. Lower gross production value was due primarily to yield losses caused by drought and disease in 2002.

  • Production Costs and Returns for Tobacco in 2003

    TBS-258-01, May 13, 2005

    Average net returns per acre were estimated to be negative for burley and flue-cured tobacco in 2003. Total economic costs for burley and flue-cured tobacco production likely rose in 2003 from 2002 due to higher costs for energy, labor, and quota rental rates. Cost estimates are computed using production data from the last tobacco surveys, conducted in 1995 for burley tobacco and 1996 for flue-cured tobacco, and 2003 data on prices, yields, marketing costs, and quota levels.

  • Production, Transportation, and Policy Factors Determine U.S. Export Competitiveness in World Corn and Soybean Markets

    Amber Waves, July 05, 2016

    A new infographic looks at export competitiveness of soybeans and corn in the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil by comparing farm-level production costs, the costs of internal transportation and handling, and the costs of shipping to a common export destination.

  • Productivity Growth and the Revival of Russian Agriculture

    ERR-228, April 25, 2017

    Russia’s southern district spurred national agricultural recovery due to competitive advantages. Other districts without such advantages have lagged behind.

  • Protected-Culture Technology Transforms the Fresh-Tomato Market

    Amber Waves, February 21, 2013

    In calendar year 2011, protected culture tomatoes made up 40 percent of U.S. tomato shipments, up from less than 10 percent in 2004; they now dominate the retail industry and are becoming more common in foodservice. The transition to protected culture tomatoes is likely to accelerate if growers can meet foodservice demand, particularly from fast food buyers.

  • Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985

    AIB-498, April 01, 1986

    The Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198) establishes a comprehensive framework within which the Secretary of Agriculture will administer agriculture and food programs from 1986 through 1990. This report describes the Act's provisions for dairy, wool and mohair, wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, peanuts, soybeans, and sugar (including income and price supports, disaster payments, and acreage reductions); other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; research, extension, and teaching; food stamps; and marketings. These provisions are compared with earlier legislation.

  • Pulses Production Expanding as Consumers Cultivate a Taste for U.S. Lentils and Chickpeas

    Amber Waves, February 06, 2017

    U.S. pulses production has trended higher for several years and for the 2016/17 marketing year, lentil and chickpea production is set to reach consecutive record highs. Strong exports and rising domestic demand are driving the surge in pulse crop production.

  • Removal of Government Controls Opens Peanut and Tobacco Sectors to Market Forces

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2009

    Farm legislation in the early 2000s eliminated longstanding supply controls and geographic restrictions on the production of peanuts and tobacco. The ensuing consolidation produced fewer but larger farms for each crop that are more efficient and responsive to market developments.

  • Research Areas

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2006

    Research area charts from the November 2006 issue of Amber Waves.

  • Research Areas

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2006

    Research area charts from the September 2006 issue of Amber Waves.

  • Research Areas

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2008

    Research area charts from the April 2008 issue of Amber Waves.