Publications

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  • A New Outlook for the U.S.-Mexico Sugar and Sweetener Market

    SSSM-335-01, August 11, 2016

    ERS examines the U.S. trade remedy investigations on sugar imports from Mexico and considers how the recent "suspension agreement" restrictions on these imports change the outlook for the integrated U.S.-Mexico sweetener market.

  • Agriculture's Supply and Demand for Energy and Energy Products

    EIB-112, May 13, 2013

    Farmers have adapted to rising energy prices and evolving policies by adjusting their use of energy-based agricultural inputs, altering energy-intensive production practices, and growing more energy-feedstock crops.

  • Biofuel Use in International Markets: The Importance of Trade

    EIB-144, September 01, 2015

    The U.S. has emerged as a major exporter of biofuels, yet it still imports biofuels in order to meet government mandates. Several other countries have emerged as major exporters, and some have taken steps to restrict biofuel trade.

  • Brazil's Agricultural Land Use and Trade: Effects of Changes in Oil Prices and Ethanol Demand

    ERR-210, June 29, 2016

    ERS examines the extent to which changes in oil prices could affect Brazil's ethanol sector and the agricultural land-use decisions on production of sugarcane-Brazil's main ethanol feedstock-versus other crop and livestock activities.

  • Brazil's Ethanol Industry: Looking Forward

    BIO-02, June 27, 2011

    This report profiles and analyzes Brazil's ethanol industry, providing information on the policy environment that enabled the development of feedstock and processing sectors, and discusses the various opportunities and challenges to face the industry over the next decade.

  • Cellulosic Ethanol From Crop Residue Is No Free Lunch?

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2009

    Harvesting crop residues for use as biofuel feedstocks may provide revenue to farmers but can also impose costs by reducing soil productivity and increasing loss of nutrients. Changes in soil erosion and fertilizer use may also result in off-farm environmental impacts.

  • China's Market for Distillers Dried Grains and the Key Influences on Its Longer Run Potential

    FDS-12G-01, August 09, 2012

    ERs reviews China's emergence as an export market for U.S.-produced DDGS, the primary co-product from corn-based ethanol production, and analyzes how Chinese trade policies and the costs of alternative feed affect demand.

  • Colombia Becoming a New Ethanol Player

    Amber Waves, March 01, 2009

    Colombia has emerged as the second largest ethanol producer in Latin America with an energy self-sufficient production process that uses byproducts from ethanol processing–the key byproducts used are bagasse, the product remaining after crushing and extracting the juice from the cane, and vinasse, the product generated after the distillation of fermented molasses.

  • Colombia: A New Ethanol Producer on the Rise?

    WRS-0901, January 01, 2009

    Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-sufficient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national electric grid. Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol production is increasing: proposed expansion projects have the potential to more than triple daily production from 277,000 gallons in 2007 to almost 1 million gallons in 2010. Most of the expansion is intended for exports, principally to the United States. However, it is unlikely that Colombia could export ethanol anytime soon because domestic production is insufficient to meet nationwide requirements that gasoline contain a 10-percent ethanol blend.

  • Dedicated Energy Crops and Competition for Agricultural Land

    ERR-223, January 04, 2017

    Markets do not currently exist for large-scale use of renewable feedstocks for bioelectricity. ERS examines three policy scenarios that could create a market for bioelectricity using dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass.

  • Dedicating Agricultural Land to Energy Crops Would Shift Land Use

    Amber Waves, April 03, 2017

    Crops dedicated for use in energy production, such as switchgrass, are potential renewable sources for liquid fuels or bioelectricity. However, demand for switchgrass is low at the current cost of growing and converting it into useful energy, so markets do not presently exist for large-scale use of this resource.

  • Dynamic PEATSim Model Documenting Its Use in Analyzing Global Commodity Markets

    TB-1933, July 18, 2012

    This report documents the updated version of the Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade Simulation (PEATSim) model developed by USDA's Economic Research Service. PEATSim is a global model, covering 31 commodities and 27 countries/regions. The model, consistent with economic theory, provides a flexible country and commodity aggregation and accounts for cross-commodity linkages and interactions. The report includes a presentation and discussion of the structure and specific features of the revamped model, along with the theoretical underpinnings. It also documents an application of the model to illustrate its dynamic structure and to demonstrate the differential behavior.

  • ERS Bioenergy Information and Research

    AP-023, January 23, 2008

    The Economic Research Service has a broad range of research on how agricultural markets and natural resources might be affected by the increased demand for bioenergy. ERS research on bioenergy encompasses all aspects of the ERS research mission, including economic and policy issues involving food, farming, natural resources, and rural development.

  • ERS Bioenergy Information and Research, August 2007

    AP-023-2, August 01, 2007

    ERS has a broad range of research on how agricultural markets and natural resources might be affected by the increased demand for bioenergy. ERS research on bioenergy encompasses all aspects of the ERS research mission, including economic and policy issues involving food, farming, natural resources, and rural development. Ongoing bioenergy research focuses on domestic and global agricultural markets; economywide, regional, and household effects; natural resource, environmental, and rural community impacts; and implications for food prices, the range of crops that can be grown for energy production in the future.

  • ERS Bioenergy Information and Research, March 2007

    AP-023-1, March 01, 2007

    The tremendous expansion of bioenergy production raises several key questions: Where will ethanol producers get the corn needed to increase their output? How will increased demand for biodiesel affect soybean markets? What will be the impact on livestock production of increased use of crops for energy? How will international markets for commodities and renewable energy be affected? Will rural communities benefit from local production of ethanol? Will food prices increase due to competing uses for grains? How will increased bioenergy production impact environmental quality? Although grain-based ethanol is currently the major source of biofuels in the U.S., continued research to improve the conversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass feedstocks eventually will increase the range of crops that can be grown for energy production in the future.

  • ERS Bioenergy Research Plans

    AP-024, February 01, 2008

    ERS has a broad range of research on how agricultural markets and natural resources are and will be affected by the increased production of bioenergy. Planned ERS research on bioenergy encompasses all aspects of the ERS research mission, including economic and policy issues involving food, farming, natural resources, and rural development. Current and planned bioenergy research focuses on domestic and global crop and livestock markets; economywide, regional, and household effects of increased bioenergy production; natural resource, environmental, and rural community impacts; and implications for food prices.

  • ERS Bioenergy Research Plans 2007-8

    AP-024-1, May 01, 2007

    The tremendous expansion of bioenergy production raises several key questions: Where will ethanol producers get the corn needed to increase their output? How will increased demand for biodiesel affect soybean markets? What will be the impact on livestock production of increased use of crops for energy? How will international markets for commodities and renewable energy be affected? Will rural communities benefit from local production of ethanol? Will food prices increase due to competing uses for grains? How will increased bioenergy production impact environmental quality? Although grain-based ethanol is currently the major source of biofuels in the U.S., continued research to improve the conversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass feedstocks eventually will increase the range of crops that can be grown for energy production in the future.

  • ERS Bioenergy Research Plans 2008-09

    AP-024-2, February 01, 2008

    ERS has a broad range of research on how agricultural markets and natural resources might be affected by the increased demand for bioenergy. ERS research on bioenergy encompasses all aspects of the ERS research mission, including economic and policy issues involving food, farming, natural resources, and rural development. Ongoing bioenergy research focuses on domestic and global agricultural markets; economywide, regional, and household effects; natural resource, environmental, and rural community impacts; and implications for food prices, the range of crops that can be grown for energy production in the future.

  • Effects of Increased Biofuels on the U.S. Economy in 2022

    ERR-102, October 21, 2010

    ERS examines economic effects of increased biofuels in transportation fuels, called for in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Effects are measured by gross domestic product, household income, price of energy fuels, and agricultural output and trade.

  • Effects of Recent Energy Price Reductions on U.S. Agriculture

    BIO-04, June 02, 2015

    Sharply lower energy prices begun in late 2014 will benefit the agriculture sector mainly through lower transport and production costs. Energy price decreases are projected to lower production costs by about $5 billion in 2015 and in 2016.