Publications

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  • 2014 Farm Act Shifts Crop Commodity Programs Away From Fixed Payments and Expands Program Choices

    Amber Waves, July 07, 2014

    The new Farm Act continues a shift toward closer links between commodity programs and Federal crop insurance, involving complex trade-offs for producers. Read about it in the July issue of Amber Waves magazine.

  • A New World for U.S. Cotton Producers

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2007

    The end of the MFA has brought a decline in U.S. textile production and domestic demand for U.S. cotton with the result that the U.S. cotton sector has become increasingly export dependent. The sector has been helped by yield enhancing technological advances, but U.S. cotton also faces increasing competition from abroad. An ongoing WTO dispute and possible changes in U.S. farm legislation mean further uncertainty for the sector.

  • ACRE Program Payments and Risk Reduction: An Analysis Based on Simulations of Crop Revenue Variability

    ERR-101, September 17, 2010

    ERS analyzes the distribution, by crop and region, of potential farm payments and risk reduction in the revenue-based Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) program. The report focuses on corn, soybeans, wheat, and cotton.

  • Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops by U.S. Farmers Has Increased Steadily for Over 15 Years

    Amber Waves, March 04, 2014

    Farmers planted about 170 million acres of GE crops in 2013.

  • Behind the Data: Estimating the Raw-Fiber Equivalent of U.S. Cotton Textile and Apparel Imports

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2005

    The data behind the ERS raw-fiber equivalent estimates come from product-specific shipment volumes collected by the U.S. Department of Commerce. More than 3,000 different textile and apparel products containing cotton are imported by the U.S. annually and are converted to raw-fiber equivalents using factors developed by ERS.

  • Brazil's Cotton Industry: Economic Reform and Development

    CWS-11D01, June 17, 2011

    This report identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil's cotton production and exports that have made the country both an important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with U.S. cotton producers since 1990.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cotton Farms

    SB-974-2, October 26, 2001

    Producing a pound of cotton cost U.S. farmers 38 cents in operating costs and another 35 cents in overhead costs in 1997, the latest survey year. Individual farm costs ranged from 18 cents to $1.97 per pound for operating costs and from 28 cents to $2.96 per pound for total costs. The Prairie Gateway had the largest proportion of cotton farms while the largest cotton farms and the largest share of cotton production were in the Fruitful Rim.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cotton Farms, 2007

    EIB-104, December 20, 2012

    Fewer U.S. farms produced cotton in 2007 than in 1997. The average farm was larger, and the share of production had shifted to the Southwest. Cotton farms varied - e.g., in production practices and commodity diversification.

  • Characteristics of U.S. Cotton Farms Vary Widely

    Amber Waves, February 21, 2013

    In the U.S, cotton is a major field crop that generates significant cash receipts for producers, exceeded only by corn, soybeans, wheat, and greenhouse products. Data from the most recent (2007) cotton version of USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey reveal the extent to which cotton farm operators have different characteristics and use different production practices.

  • China's Agricultural Imports Boomed During 2003-04

    WRS-0504, May 06, 2005

    China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth in U.S. exports of soybeans, cotton, and wheat. China was the fourth-largest overseas market for U.S. farmers during 2004, accounting for 9 percent of U.S. agricultural exports. China's agricultural exports continued to climb as well, but at a rate slower than its growth in imports. The outlook for Chinese imports is favorable due to strong economic growth and continued liberalization of the economy.

  • China's Cotton Supply and Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market

    CWS-07I-01, November 06, 2007

    USDA has developed a new approach for estimating cotton consumption in China based on textile import and export data, supplementing the traditional methodology that uses yarn production data from China's National Bureau of Statistics. This analysis suggests USDA's historical estimates of China's cotton consumption are reasonable and USDA's August 2007 forecast may be conservative. These insights into the amount of cotton consumed by China's textile mills, combined with data on China's cotton exports and imports, suggest there may be problems with the official estimates of China's cotton production. Uncertainties regarding the level of production and consumption of cotton in China mean that the potential remains for unexpected changes in China's cotton import demand that could destabilize world commodity markets despite increased global communication. These unexpected changes highlight China's impact on world cotton markets and the lack of transparency in China's intervention in its domestic cotton markets and official cotton stock accumulation.

  • China’s Cotton Use Trimmed by Growing Efficiency and a Slowing Economy

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2009

    Higher efficiency combined with changes in fiber blending has reduced the volume of cotton fiber needed to produce China’s textile and clothing exports. These changes have important implications for understanding world cotton markets and the size of the world’s largest cotton textile industry.

  • Cotton Backgrounder

    CWS-07B01, March 30, 2007

    U.S. cotton growers, like producers of other agricultural commodities in recent years, have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, the ending of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) sent a ripple effect throughout the global cotton industry. While adjustments in the textile and apparel sectors of many countries, including the United States, continue to evolve, dramatic changes have already been seen for some. World cotton mill use has accelerated along with economic growth since 1999, particularly in China, and U.S. cotton producers have benefited as foreign import demand has reached new heights. Government payments contribute a considerable portion of total revenue to the cotton sector, and adjustments to this program or any other commodity program in the 2007 farm legislation will be driven by factors such as domestic market conditions, multilateral trade negotiations, and the Federal budget deficit.

  • Cotton Policy in China

    CWS-15C-01, March 31, 2015

    Managing China's unprecedented volume of cotton stockpiles will require difficult choices by Chinese authorities. China's large role in world cotton markets means its recent policy changes could reduce world cotton prices significantly.

  • Cotton and Hydropower in Central Asia: How Resource Competition Affects Trade

    EIB-106, January 15, 2013

    Heightened use of hydropower increases competition between local energy and agriculture sectors for scarce supplies of water. Although this may raise cotton prices locally, it has minimal effect on global prices.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook Monthly Tables: January 2018

    CWS-18a, January 17, 2018

    The January 2018 Cotton and Wool Outlook tables provide the latest fiber and textile product data.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook Tables: February 2013

    CWS-13B, February 12, 2013

    The latest USDA projections for U.S. and world cotton supply and demand are included, along with U.S. textile trade. The selected tables were only updated in February; tables 3-5 will be included again in March.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook Tables: February 2014

    CWS-14B, February 12, 2014

    The Cotton and Wool Outlook tables provide the latest fiber and textile product data. Errata: On February 26, 2014, Table 7, Table 8, and Table 9 were revised with corrected data for October and November 2013.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook Tables: February 2015

    CWS-15B, February 12, 2015

    The February 2015 Cotton and Wool Outlook tables provide the latest fiber and textile product data.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook Tables: February 2016

    CWS-16B, February 11, 2016

    The February 2016 Cotton and Wool Outlook tables provide the latest fiber and textile product data.