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63 publications, sorted by date 

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EIB-121, February 20, 2014
In the United States, 31 percent—or 133 billion pounds—of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at the retail and consumer levels in 2010 went uneaten. The estimated value of this food loss was $161.6 billion using retail prices. For the first time, ERS estimated the calories associate...
ERR-160, November 26, 2013
This study analyzes the relationship between fuel prices and wholesale produce prices using data for 2000-2009.
FTS-356, July 26, 2013
Tight early cherry and peach supplies boosting early-summer prices.
FTS-355, March 29, 2013
Warm, dry weather reduces total U.S. citrus production in 2012/13.
VGS-353, March 29, 2013
This issue covers basic supply, demand, price, and trade analysis for fresh market vegetables, processing vegetables, and potatoes. Features include a discussion of bell peppers, longrun outlook, Food Safety Modernization Act, and China's vegetable exports.
FTS-354, December 18, 2012
Total citrus production forecast to remain stable in 2012/13.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
This issue covers basic supply, demand, price, and trade analysis for fresh market vegetables, processing vegetables, dry beans, dry peas and lentils, and sweet potatoes. Features include a discussion how ERS forecasts retail vegetable prices and 2012 vegetable pricing.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Adverse weather is behind the forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops in 2012.
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
The farm value of all mushrooms totaled a record $1.1 billion in the 2011/12 crop year.
FTS-352, June 28, 2012
This season’s Southern Hemisphere blueberry shipments to the United States (primarily from Chile) have already ended and sourcing has now transitioned to domestic production. Current domestic pricing for fresh blueberries is above last year’s, caused by an early finish to Chilean shipments this wint...
VGS-350, June 28, 2012
Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use of fresh-market vegetables fell less than...
VGS-349, March 30, 2012
Fresh-market vegetable supplies remain strong, pushing prices lower for most crops. Market impacts from an early-year freeze in parts of Florida were minimal as production was still largely in southern parts of the State. In 2011 (the first year of data availability) organic fresh vegetable expor...
VGS-346, August 25, 2011
The farm value of all mushroom (Agaricus and others) sales during the 2010/11 crop year (July-June) reached a new high of $1 billion, up 8 percent from a year earlier. Partly reflecting modest gains in the economy, mushroom sales volume rose 9 percent to 862 million pounds, the second highest level ...
VGS-342-02, February 10, 2011
This report highlights the anticipated consequences of the 2008 Farm Act’s Planting Transferability Pilot Program (PTPP) on processing (pickling) cucumber plantings. PTPP allows program crop growers in seven Upper Midwestern States to reduce base acres and plant select vegetables for processing on t...
VGS-342-01, February 03, 2011
This report presents a financial snapshot of the U.S. vegetable and melon farms by region and farm size over three 3-year periods (1999-2007).
FTS-345-01, December 16, 2010
This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies—asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes—highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. grower...
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
Amber Waves, December 01, 2010
Reduction in the supply of workers that could make agricultural labor more expensive for the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry may impact industry competitiveness, but the effects would vary by commodity.
ERR-106, November 12, 2010
Fruit and vegetable production is a labor-intensive process, and over half of the hired workers employed by growers are believed to be unauthorized immigrants. Reforms to immigration laws, if they reduce the labor supply, may increase the cost of farm labor. The authors of this report assess how par...
AP-050, November 10, 2010
The Senate Report 111-039 accompanying S. 1406, the 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Bill, requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) prepare and publish a report regarding consumer perceptions of canned fruits and vegetables. In the absence of consumer...
EIB-58, September 30, 2009
Organic foods now occupy prominent shelf space in the produce and dairy aisles of most mainstream U.S. food retailers. The marketing boom has pushed retail sales of organic foods up to $21.1 billion in 2008 from $3.6 billion in 1997. U.S. organic-industry growth is evident in an expanding number of ...
VGS-333-01, August 19, 2009
Growth over time in the demand for fresh vegetables for at-home consumption may slow because of differences in the behavior of younger and older birth cohorts. A birth cohort includes people born in the same year and is similar in concept to a generation. People born around the same point in history...
EIB-55, June 03, 2009
Consumer demand for organic products has widened over the last decade. While new producers have emerged to help meet demand, market participants report that a supply squeeze is constraining growth for both individual firms and the organic sector overall. Partly in response to shortages in organic su...
WRS-09-03, March 31, 2009
Implementation of the agricultural provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has drawn to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade were removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member coun...
EIB-44, March 20, 2009
This study analyzed updated food loss estimates for fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, and seafood obtained through a competitive grant with the Perishables Group, Inc. The new estimates were obtained for use in the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data. They had little impact on per capita ...
VGS-329-01, October 27, 2008
Rapid growth in the organic foods market has placed great pressure on farmers and handlers in the U.S. organic sector. Handlers are firms that produce, process, and distribute organic food. As the middlemen in the supply chain, organic handlers have been unable at times to provide as much of their f...
AP-032, September 12, 2008
In response to Senate Report 110-134, accompanying S. 1859, the 2008 the Agriculture Appropriations Bill, ERS researchers published a report about consumer perceptions and consumption of canned fruits and vegetables using USDA’s food consumption survey data, Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Expe...
VGS-328-01, September 09, 2008
Vegetable and melon production requires a substantial investment in production inputs. Using data from USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), this article presents and explores the major expense components of specialized U.S. and regional vegetable and melon farms during 1998-2006. T...
ERR-60, July 11, 2008
Hired farmworkers make up a third of the total agricultural labor force and are critical to U.S. agricultural production, particularly in labor-intensive sectors such as fruits and vegetables. The hired farmworker labor market is unique because it includes a large population of relatively disadvanta...
ERR-58, May 30, 2008
The 2002 Farm Act required USDA to implement marketing loans for the 2002-07 crops of dry peas, lentils, and small chickpeas. This provision led to expanded acreage for dry peas and lentils, crops analyzed in this study. The analysis found that marketing loans played a role in expansion for dry peas...
EIB-33, March 28, 2008
This report examines major trends in the amount of food available for consumption in the United States between 1970 and 2005 using data from the ERS Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System. The report also estimates whether Americans are meeting Federal dietary recommendations for each of the maj...
FTS-32801, September 10, 2007
U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit, and equatorial countries for bananas. The s...
FAU-123, June 29, 2007
U.S. agricultural exports reached a record in fiscal 2006 at $68.7 billion, some $6.2 billion higher than the record set in fiscal 2005. California, Iowa, Texas, and Illinois continued their reign as top exporting States, while Minnesota dropped to seventh position behind Nebraska and Kansas. North ...
VGS-31901, March 06, 2007
Carrots are one of the most popular vegetables in the United States and fresh-market carrot consumption has been increasing over the past few decades. Using a combination of ACNielsen Homescan panel data and USDA’s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, this article examines where and how...
ERR-31, November 20, 2006
To help Americans meet nutritional requirements while staying within caloric recommendations, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, and fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. This report provides one view of the potential imp...
ERR-24, August 15, 2006
For the commodities they sell, farmers have been receiving a decreasing share of what consumers pay for food at retail stores for some time,but the extent of this decrease has been overstated for at least a few commodity groups. Current estimates of farm share are based on baskets of foods represent...
VGS-314, April 20, 2006
In 2005, per capita use (also known as disappearance or consumption) of all vegetables and melons declined 1 percent to 444 pounds. Disappearance of all vegetables and melons totaled 131 billion pounds in 2005, compared with 120 billion pounds a decade earlier. Per capita use of fresh market vegeta...
VGS-31301, April 17, 2006
This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.
FTS-32001, February 14, 2006
China has raised its profile in global fruit and vegetable markets, with the value of its exports during 2002-04 more than double the value from a decade earlier. Most of China's exports are processed fruits and vegetables that do not yet pose a serious challenge to U.S. exports. However, China's fr...
VGS-312, December 16, 2005
With total 2005 potato production down 7.5 percent, the January-October price received by growers/shippers/packers for fresh-market potatoes averaged $9.27 per cwt, 25 percent above the average received during the first 10 months of 2004. By contrast, prices for processing potatoes (which largely m...
VGS-30801, May 27, 2005
Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. Fresh produce has long been an important component of the organic food sector, and a significant contributor to the organic industry's growth over the last decade. This art...
ERR-2, April 01, 2005
The North American greenhouse tomato industry has grown rapidly since the early 1990s and now plays a major role in the fresh tomato industry. However, relatively little is known about this new industry, in part because of the lack of reliable production, trade, and price data. Both analysts and ind...
AIB-792-1, November 12, 2004
Nutritionists recommend a variety of vegetables, including regular servings of deep-yellow and dark-green vegetables prepared with limited amounts of fats and sugars. In contrast, the most popular vegetable choice of most Americans is fried potatoes.
AIB-792-2, November 12, 2004
For good health, USDA urges American consumers to eat more fruits and vegetables-5 to 9 servings per day-and to choose a healthier, more varied mix of these foods. The variety of produce available to Americans has blossomed in recent years, but are consumers responding? The first step in determining...
AIB-792-3, November 12, 2004
The USDA encourages people to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables through the Food Guide Pyramid and participation in the National 5-A-Day Partnership. A varied diet helps ensure a complete mix of nutrients, and a lack of variety in vegetable consumption has been further linked to the incidence o...
AIB-792-4, November 12, 2004
Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to...
AIB-792-5, November 12, 2004
Both public and private organizations have noted that Americans generally eat less fruits and vegetables than is recommended in the Food Guide Pyramid. For example, the Produce for Better Health Foundation found that only 38 percent of Americans consume the recommended number of servings of vegetabl...
AIB-792-6, November 12, 2004
National data on the diets of U.S. children and adolescents indicate they are consuming more fat and saturated fat than recommended while their intakes of fruits and vegetables fall well below recommended levels.
AIB-792-7, November 12, 2004
Rising income, higher educational attainment, improved diet and health knowledge, more frequent eating out, and a growing population that will become older and more diverse in race and ethnicity are all shaping U.S. agricultural consumption. These effects are analyzed using data from the 1994-96 and...
AIB-792, November 04, 2004
USDA's Food Guide Pyramid recommends 2-4 servings of fruit and 3-5 servings of vegetables daily. As a member of the 5-A-Day public-private partnership, USDA partners with other government agencies and private sector groups to promote the health benefits of fruits and vegetable. Yet consumption of th...
AIB-790, July 20, 2004
This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or le...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
VGS-300, December 18, 2003
Total potato production for the 2003 crop year is forecast at 457 million cwt—down less than 1 percent from 2002. Despite the slight drop in production, however, U.S. grower prices for all potatoes have averaged 19 percent below a year ago and 14 percent below 2 years ago for the September - Novemb...
AER-825, September 23, 2003
Retail consolidation, technological change in production and marketing, and growing consumer demand for produce have altered the traditional market relationships between producers, wholesalers, and retailers. Increasingly, produce suppliers are asked to provide additional marketing services and ince...
VGS-297, June 20, 2003
Per capita consumption of all vegetables and melons (on a fresh-equivalent basis) is expected to increase 1 percent to 445 pounds in 2003--up about 6 pounds from 2002. Gains are expected to be spread across fresh and processing items, led by potatoes, tomatoes, and sweet corn. In 2002, per capita v...
VGS-295-01, March 31, 2003
U.S. mushroom consumption has been increasing over the past several decades. Basic knowledge of the distribution of mushroom consumption across different market channels, geographic regions, and population groups has been very limited in the past. Using data from USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing S...
VGS-295, February 25, 2003
Planted area for spring-season onions is expected to decline 12 percent to 34,400 acres. Plantings are down in three of the four reporting States with Texas (down 23 percent) expecting the largest decline. Although area planted is forecast lower, production could exceed the short 2002 crop of 9.7 mi...
VGS-292, August 22, 2002
The first estimate for the 2002 dry edible bean crop indicates a 39-percent increase from a year ago. Harvested area and per-acre yields are both expected to increase. U.S. dry edible bean growers reacted to depleted stocks and the highest prices in a decade by increasing area for harvest to 1.69 m...
VGS-290, April 18, 2002
According to preliminary ERS estimates, per capita vegetable and melon use (consumption) declined 1 percent in 2001 to 448 pounds. Fresh-market use (excluding potatoes) was unchanged at 173 pounds while freezing (down 1 percent) and canning (down 3 percent) use were lower. Per capita use of potatoes...
VGS-288, December 14, 2001
The November 2001 estimate of U.S. fall-season potato production is 401 million hundredweight (cwt). When added to the winter, spring, and summer potato crops, this places total production for the 2001 crop year at 442 million cwt, 14 percent below a year ago. In response to reduced production, U.S....
VGS-285, August 21, 2001
This summer (largely July-September 2001), fresh-market vegetable and melon area for harvest is forecast to rise 2 percent from a year ago. Increased acreage is a reflection of stronger grower prices since last summer. California, accounting for 50 percent of this year’s summer-season area, increase...
AIB-709, July 03, 1995
On both a volume and value basis, the United States is the world's largest spice importer and consumer, with both imports and consumption on an uptrend for the past 10 years. While the United States imports more than 40 separate spices, seven of these (vanilla beans, black and white pepper, capsicum...

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