U.S. Agricultural Trade

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Global economic conditions drive demand for food and agricultural products, providing the foundation for U.S. agricultural trade. Therefore, the composition and pattern of U.S. agricultural exports and imports shift to reflect changes in trade policies, world population and income, and economic growth. Other factors affecting U.S. agricultural trade include global supplies and prices, changes in exchange rates, and government support for agriculture. For an overview of U.S. agricultural trade, see U.S Agricultural Trade at a Glance.

ERS provides a range of data products and reports covering U.S. agricultural trade and factors affecting trade flows. 

Periodic, Scheduled Outputs

  • Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS), a USDA aggregation of data that provide information on U.S. agricultural exports and imports, volume, and value by country and by commodity. Updated monthly or annually.
  • The Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade, forecasts U.S. agricultural exports and imports for the upcoming fiscal year, by country and sector. The Outlook is also summarized online in the corresponding long form content piece. An Interactive summary and highlights of the most recent Outlook are available here.
  • State Agricultural Trade Data include the annually updated State Exports, Cash Receipts Estimates calendar year data set which provides the value of exports by State and commodity, and the quarterly updated State Trade by Country of Origin and Destination fiscal quarter data set which provides the top five U.S. agricultural import and export commodities and the top countries buying or selling those commodities, by State.
  • Agricultural Trade Multipliers provide estimates of employment and/or output effects of trade in farm and food products on the U.S. economy. These effects, when expressed as multipliers, reflect the amount of economic activity and/or jobs generated by agricultural exports.
  • USDA Agricultural Projections, released in February each year and provide USDA's 10-year projections for the food and agriculture sector including expected U.S. agricultural trade by commodity group.
  • U.S. Export Share of Production, Import Share of Consumption (2008-2019) data include the share of U.S. agricultural production, by value, sold outside the country, and the share of imports in total domestic food consumption by value.
  • U.S. Food Importsa dataset that provides import values of edible products (food and beverages) entering U.S. ports and their origin of shipment. Food and beverage import values are compiled by calendar year into food groups corresponding to major commodities or level of processing.

Recent ERS Reports Relating to U.S. Agricultural Trade 

In addition to the periodic Outlook report and data products, ERS produces reports analyzing trade to a particular country or region and key factors affecting trade flows.

Recent ERS reports relating to U.S. agricultural trade include: