Readings

Readings 

Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture

This report examines how pending trade agreements (TAs) between the United States and Korea, Colombia, and Panama as well as recently concluded TAs between ASEAN (Southeast Asia) countries and China and Australia/New Zealand will likely affect U.S. agricultural trade. Model results suggest that U.S. agricultural exports to Korea would expand by an estimated $1.9 billion per year if the U.S. TA with Korea were implemented (April 2011).

"Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System?

This report assesses the impact of expanded urbanization, variability in population growth and immigration, and aging populations on the Asia-Pacific food system. The ability of developing countries to adjust to rapid urbanization will be the most important demographic challenge, testing the region's capacity to deliver a steady flow of safe, reasonably priced food (Amber Waves, June 2004).

Structure of the Global Markets for Meat

Many factors determine the Structure of Global Markets for Meat (September 2003), including the relative availability of resources for raising and processing animals for meat. Countries' preferences for various cuts of meat provide opportunities for international trade. South Korea has been one of the largest markets for U.S. meat exports.

International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns

This research analyzes expenditures across 114 countries on major consumption categories, including food and different food subcategories. Results indicate poorer countries are more responsive to price and income changes and also allocate larger shares of their total budget to necessities such as food (October 2003).

Structural Change and Agricultural Protection: Costs of Korean Agricultural Policy, 1975 and 1990

This report provides an overview of South Korea's agricultural policy goals and outcomes in a period of rapid economic development. Protection of agriculture skewed farmers' choices of crops and tended to keep labor in agriculture (and out of manufacturing and services), resulting in misallocation of resources. Despite the sharp decline of agriculture's importance in South Korea's general economy, high import barriers continued, incurring greater costs to the economy in 1990 than in 1975 (April 2002).

Economics of Tariff-Rate Quota Administration

This report discusses South Korea's quotas and uses its wheat market as a case study of what can happen when a quota system is dropped (April 2001).

The Road Ahead: Agricultural Policy Reform in the WTO--Summary Report

This research calculates the possible effects of various multilateral trade liberalization scenarios on South Korea's agricultural markets (January 2001).

The Financial Crisis Hit Korean Agricultural Imports Hard 

This report details how the 1997 international financial crisis severely battered South Korea's ability to import, and how it altered government policies regarding finance and foreign investment, and sent the economy into an abrupt, steep recession (March, 2000). See page 26 of the following report: 

 

Data

Production, Supply, and Distribution (PS&D) contains official USDA data on production, supply, and distribution of agricultural commodities for the United States and major importing and exporting countries. The database provides projections for the coming year and historical data for more than 200 countries and major crop, livestock, fishery, and forest products.

Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) provides U.S. agricultural exports and imports, volume and value, by country, by commodity, and by calendar year, fiscal year, and month, for varying periods, such as 1935 to the present or 1989 to the present. Updated monthly or annually. 

"Behind the Data: WTO Agricultural Trade Policy Commitments Database" contains data on implementation of trade policy commitments by WTO member countries. Data on domestic support, export subsidies, and tariffs are organized for comparison across countries. This queriable database offers various options for viewing and downloading data. 

Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a publicly available information tool for analyzing WTO market access issues in agriculture. It contains data and information for WTO member countries, including tariff schedules, tariff bindings, applied tariff rates, country notifications to the WTO, import quantities, and other data useful in tariff analysis.  

Links 

U.S. Department of Agriculture  

Other U.S. Government

  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook
  • U.S. Census Bureau trade data
  • International Trade Commission (ITC)
  • United States Trade Representative (USTR)
    • National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers
    • Trade Policy Agenda and Annual Report on the Trade Agreements Program 

International Organizations

Korean Government

Other