Other Links

  • Japan's Beef Market (August 2010) Japan's domestic beef production relies on imported feed and has provided a key market for U.S. feed grain.  Japan also imports substantial amounts of beef, primarily from Oceania and North America. ERS presents an overview of Japan's beef market, including consumer preferences and trade policies.
  • Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook: April 2010  (April 2010) provides a detailed description and analysis of Japan's policies that support its fruit producers and regulate fruit marketing and trade.
  • Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook: March 2008 (March 2008) reviews the trade, production, and consumption of oranges in Japan, which is one of the largest markets for U.S. orange exports. Consumption and trade peaked in the mid-1990s. Declining Orange Consumption in Japan: Generational Changes or Something Else? (February 2009) presents research findings about demographic and economic changes that might explain why consumption has fallen off in the past 15 years.
  • Economic Effects of Animal Diseases Linked to Trade Dependency (April 2006) highlights the importance of livestock and poultry trade to producers and consumers around the world. Though global meat trade has not fallen in response to animal disease outbreaks, a few countries have seen significant changes to their exports and imports. For more information, see Disease-Related Trade Restrictions Shaped Animal Product Markets in 2004 and Stamp Imprints on 2005 Forecasts (August 2005) and Brazil Emerges as Major Force in Global Meat Markets (April 2006).
  • Resolution of the U.S.- Japan Apple Dispute: New Opportunities for Trade October 2005) examines the expected impact of Japan's new phytosanitary protocol for imports of U.S. apples that complies with the recent World Trade Organization ruling. With the elimination of the restrictive fire-blight protocol, U.S. producers have a new opportunity to export apples to a high-quality export market, at a significantly lower cost than before.
  • Dairy Policies in Japan (August 2005) provides a detailed description and analysis of Japan's policies that support its milk producers and regulate dairy markets. If Japan's policies were liberalized, prices and production in Japan would fall, but sizable milk production would remain.
  • Wheat and Barley Policies in Japan (November 2004) provides a detailed description and analysis of policies used by Japan to support its wheat and barley producers. Japan uses tax revenues and a markup on prices of wheat and barley imported within a quota to provide large direct payments to producers. Consumers and taxpayers ultimately pay for this support.
  • Global Trade Patterns in Fruits and Vegetables examines the country's domestic markets and trade experiences. Japan's large horticultural market is still largely supplied by Japanese farms, but fresh vegetable imports, especially from China, have been increasing. The chapter is part of a report examining Global Trade Patterns in Fruits and Vegetables (June 2004).
  • China Increases Exports of Fresh and Frozen Vegetables to Japan (Vegetables and Melons Outlook special report, August 2002) discusses trade developments in the 1990s.
  • Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System? (June 2004) assesses the impact of expanded urbanization, variability in population growth and immigration, and aging populations on the Asia-Pacific food system. The ability of developing countries to adjust to rapid urbanization will be the most important demographic challenge, testing the region's capacity to deliver a steady flow of safe, reasonably priced food.
  • Rice Sector Policies in Japan (March 2003) describes government policies affecting rice farming in Japan. The tariff-rate quota, by limiting foreign competition, allows rice prices in Japan that are much higher than outside Japan, and is the main form of support for rice. Within Japan, government subsidies compensate farmers for declines in the rice price.
  • Rice Tariffication in Japan: What Does It Mean for Trade? (Agricultural Outlook, April 1999) explains Japan's rice import system.
  • Pork Policies in Japan (March 2003) provides a detailed description and analysis of policies used by Japan to support its hog producers and to regulate pork markets. Regional deficiency payment programs compensate for price declines, with support from the national government. At the border, a low ad valorem tariff and the gate price system apply to pork imports.
  • Commodity Policies of the U.S., EU, and Japan (December 2002) addresses some common goals of the three, as well as differences in approach and policy instruments. In recent years, budget pressures and trade agreements have led each toward less trade-distorting policies. New issues, such as environmental, food safety, and rural development concerns, may lead to further policy change.
  • Oilseed Policies in Japan (December 2002) describes the policies used by Japan to support its oilseed producers and processors. Tariffs on vegetable oils protect oilseed crushers. Strong subsidies to divert land from rice into soybeans have led to increased soybean production.
  • Vegetable Policies in Japan (November 2002) provides a detailed description and analysis of policies used by Japan to support its vegetable producers and to regulate vegetable markets. Domestic policies include compensation to farmers when market prices fall below a moving average of historical prices, subsidies to make farms and processing more efficient, and subsidized hazard insurance for greenhouses and some field crops.
  • Sweetener Policies in Japan (September 2002) provides a detailed description and analysis of policies used by Japan to support its sugar producers and to regulate sweetener markets. Domestic policies include price floors for cane and beet farmers, subsidies to sugar refiners to compensate for the high cost of domestic sugarcane and sugar beets, and quantity limits on the production of high-fructose corn syrup.

 Other Links

 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Other U.S. Government

International Organizations

Japanese Government