The European Union (EU) expanded from 15 to 25 countries in 2004 and to 27 in 2007 (adding Bulgaria and Romania). The EU-27 generally accounts for 15-20 percent of the world's agricultural exports and imports, and is one of the most important trading partners and competitors of the United States in world agricultural markets.  European agricultural policy has long had a major impact on world agricultural markets, and the EU is one of the key participants in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations on agricultural trade.

ERS provides information and analysis on the EU agricultural sector, particularly on issues related to policy, enlargement, and WTO commitments.