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This page provides the following information:

Food Security Status of U.S. Households in 2018

Food secure—These households had access, at all times, to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members.

  • 88.9 percent (114.9 million) of U.S. households were food secure throughout 2018.
  • Up from 88.2 percent in 2017.

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Food insecure—At times during the year, these households were uncertain of having, or unable to acquire, enough food to meet the needs of all their members because they had insufficient money or other resources for food. Food-insecure households include those with low food security and very low food security.

  • 11.1 percent (14.3 million) of U.S. households were food insecure at some time during 2018.
  • Down from 11.8 percent in 2017.

Low food security—These food-insecure households obtained enough food to avoid substantially disrupting their eating patterns or reducing food intake by using a variety of coping strategies, such as eating less varied diets, participating in Federal food assistance programs, or getting emergency food from community food pantries.

  • 6.8 percent (8.7 million) of U.S. households had low food security in 2018.
  • Down from 7.3 percent in 2017.

Very low food security—In these food-insecure households, normal eating patterns of one or more household members were disrupted and food intake was reduced at times during the year because they had insufficient money or other resources for food. 

  • 4.3 percent (5.6 million) of U.S. households had very low food security at some time during 2018.
  • Essentially unchanged from 4.5 percent in 2017.

Food Security Status of U.S. Households with Children in 2018

Among U.S. households with children under age 18:

  • 86.1 percent were food secure in 2018.
  • In 6.8 percent of households with children, only adults were food insecure.
  • Both children and adults were food insecure in 7.1 percent of households with children (2.7 million households).
  • Although children are usually protected from substantial reductions in food intake even in households with very low food security, nevertheless, in about 0.6 percent of households with children (220,000 households), one or more child also experienced reduced food intake and disrupted eating patterns at some time during the year.

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For more information, see the ERS report: 

Food Insecurity in Households With Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics, 2010-11

How Many People Lived in Food-Insecure Households?

In 2018:

  • 37.2 million people lived in food-insecure households.
  • 9.5 million adults lived in households with very low food security.
  • 6.0 million children lived in food-insecure households in which children, along with adults, were food insecure.
  • 540,000 children (0.7 percent of the Nation's children) lived in households in which one or more child experienced very low food security.

For more information, see Food Insecurity in the U.S.: Frequency of Food Insecurity.

Food Insecurity by Household Characteristics

The prevalence of food insecurity varied considerably among household types. Rates of food insecurity were higher than the national average (11.1 percent) for the following groups:

  • All households with children (13.9 percent),
  • Households with children under age 6 (14.3 percent),
  • Households with children headed by a single woman (27.8 percent),
  • Households with children headed by a single man (15.9 percent),
  • Women living alone (14.2 percent),
  • Men living alone (12.5 percent),
  • Black, non-Hispanic households (21.2 percent),
  • Hispanic households (16.2 percent), and
  • Low-income households with incomes below 185 percent of the poverty threshold (29.1 percent; the Federal poverty line was $25,465 for a family of four in 2018).

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  • Overall, households with children had a substantially higher rate of food insecurity (13.9 percent) than those without children (9.9 percent). Among households with children, married-couple families had the lowest rate of food insecurity (8.3 percent).
  • The prevalence of food insecurity was higher for households located in nonmetropolitan areas (12.7 percent) and for those in principal cities of metropolitan areas (13.2 percent), and lower in suburban and other metropolitan areas outside principal cities (8.9 percent).
  • Regionally, the food insecurity rate was highest in the South (12.0 percent) than in the Northeast (10.2 percent), Midwest (10.8 percent), and West (10.4 percent).

For interactive data visualizations, see Interactive Charts and Highlights.

Very Low Food Security by Household Characteristics

The prevalence of very low food security in various types of households followed a pattern similar to that observed for food insecurity overall. Very low food security was more prevalent than the national average (4.3 percent) for the following groups:

  • Households with children headed by a single woman (9.4 percent),
  • Women living alone (6.5 percent) and men living alone (6.6 percent),
  • Black, non-Hispanic households (9.1 percent),
  • Hispanic households (5.1 percent),
  • Households with incomes below 185 percent of the poverty line (12.0 percent), 
  • Households located in principal cities (5.3 percent), and
  • Households located in the South (4.8 percent).

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Trends in Prevalence Rates

From 2017 to 2018, there was a statistically significant decline in the prevalence of food insecurity from 11.8 percent to 11.1 percent. This continues a 6-year trend of declining food insecurity from a high of 14.9 percent in 2011, and 2018 is the first year that food insecurity returned to the pre-recession level of 11.1 percent in 2007. Year-to year declines in food insecurity from 2016 (12.3 percent) to 2017 and from 2014 (14.0 percent) to 2015 (12.7 percent) were statistically significant. 

The cumulative decline from 2011 (14.9 percent) to 2014 (14.0 percent) was statistically significant. In the previous decade, food insecurity had increased from 10.7 percent in 2001 to 11.9 percent in 2004, declined to about 11 percent in 2005-07, then increased significantly in 2008 (to 14.6 percent), and remained essentially unchanged (that is, the difference was not statistically significant) at that level in 2009 (14.7 percent) and 2010 (14.5 percent).

The prevalence of very low food security in 2018 (4.3 percent) was not significantly different from 2017. There were statistically significant declines in very low food security from 4.9 percent in 2016 to 4.5 percent in 2017 and from 5.6 percent in 2014 to 5.0 percent in 2015. Before that, the prevalence of very low food security was essentially unchanged from 2011 (5.7 percent) through 2014. The prevalence of very low food security was also 5.7 percent in 2008 and 2009. Prior to 2008, the prevalence of very low food security had increased from 3.3 percent in 2001 to 3.9 percent in 2004, and remained essentially unchanged through 2007 (4.1 percent).

The year-to-year deviations from a consistent downward trend between 1995 and 2000 include a substantial 2-year cycle that is believed to result from seasonal effects on food security prevalence rates. The CPS food security surveys over this period were conducted in April in odd-numbered years and August or September in even-numbered years. Measured prevalence of food insecurity was higher in the August/September collections, suggesting a seasonal-response effect. In 2001 and later years, the surveys were conducted in early December, which avoids seasonal effects in interpreting annual changes.

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State-Level Prevalence of Food Insecurity

Prevalence rates of food insecurity varied considerably from State to State. Data for 3 years, 2016-18, were combined to provide more reliable statistics at the State level. Estimated prevalence rates of food insecurity during this 3-year period ranged from 7.8 percent in New Hampshire to 16.8 percent in New Mexico; estimated prevalence rates of very low food security ranged from 2.8 percent in New Hampshire to 6.8 percent in Alabama and Louisiana.

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This section is based on the publication:

Household Food Security in the United States in 2018