The United States is one of the world's largest exporters of seafood products and its second largest seafood importer. Data on the domestic wild seafood harvest and imports and exports of seafood products are compiled by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), an agency of the Department of Commerce.

Although the United States is a major seafood exporter, its exports of aquaculture products are relatively small: some farm-raised trout and salmon, chiefly to Canada and Mexico, and oysters and clams to Canada. The catfish industry has been attempting to develop export markets in Europe, but has, so far, met with only limited success. The U.S. ornamental fish industry exports its products to a number of countries, but the United States is a net importer of ornamental fish.

On the other hand, the United States is a major importer of farm-raised seafood products. The largest categories of imported aquaculture products are shrimp, salmon, and tilapia.