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  • Market Integration in the North American Hog Industries

    LDPM-12501, November 24, 2004

    About 8 percent of the hogs slaughtered in the United States in 2004 will originate in Canada-many more than 10 years ago. Canadian hogs have flowed into the United States in response to significant structural changes in the U.S. pork industry, concurrent with policy changes in Canada. This, combined with a strong U.S./Canadian dollar exchange rate, created incentives to expand hog operations in Ontario and to start production in Manitoba. In 15 years, an open border and pronounced breeding herd efficiencies helped to increase Canadian hog exports to the United States by more than eight-fold.

  • China's Soybean Imports Expected To Grow Despite Short-Term Disruptions

    OCS-04J01, October 29, 2004

    Rapid demand growth for soybeans and soybean products has outstripped supply in China over the past two decades. Liberalization in production and trade policies has facilitated the country's booming soybean imports, though some recent policy changes have disrupted imports. Despite short-term disruptions, however, China's demand for soybean and soybean products continues to look strong and provides favorable opportunities for U.S. soybean exports.

  • China: A Study of Dynamic Growth

    WRS-0408, October 12, 2004

    China's rapid economic growth has been driven by high rates of investment, gains in productivity, and liberalized foreign trade and investment. China's growth is likely to continue, but the Chinese economy faces some possibly unsustainable pressures.

  • European Union Adopts Significant Farm Reform

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    In 2003 and 2004, the European Union adopted major reforms to its agricultural policy.

  • The Changing World Network of Trade in Textiles and Apparel

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    The structure of the global textile market is fundamentally changing in response to policy reforms stemming from the 1995 Uruguay Round (UR) of the World Trade Organization. These reforms should stimulate growth in textile trade, which already outpaces trade in other sectors of the world economy.

  • CAP Reform of 2003-04

    WRS-0407, August 25, 2004

    The European Union continued to reform its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2003-04, building on the reforms of 1992 and 1999. The centerpiece of the latest reforms is the introduction of a single farm payment (SFP), which is paid to EU farmers based on historical payments unrelated to current production decisions. These recent reforms allow the EU to assume an aggressive position in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations on agriculture, while allowing farmers to make production decisions based more on market signals than on EU policy interventions.

  • A Historic Enlargement: Ten Countries Prepare To Join the European Union

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2004

    In May 2004, eight Central and Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), plus Cyprus and Malta, will join the European Union (EU). This enlargement of the EU, the largest in its history, will bring profound changes.

  • Food Safety and International Trade: Theoretical Issues

    AIB-789-2, February 28, 2004

    This research brief examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade.

  • Seafood Safety and Trade

    AIB-789-7, February 28, 2004

    This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in seafood products can be affected by food safety concerns.

  • Response to U.S. Foodborne Illness Outbreaks Associated with Imported Produce

    AIB-789-5, February 28, 2004

    This report examines how U.S. and other nations responded to foodborne illness outbreaks traced to internationally-traded food.

  • Mycotoxin Regulations: Implications for International Agricultural Trade

    AIB-789-6, February 28, 2004

    This research brief discusses regulations intended to control mycotoxins in the food supply, and examines their implications for international trade.

  • Resolving Trade Disputes Arising from Trends in Food Safety Regulation: The Role of the Multilateral Governance Framework

    AIB-789-3, February 28, 2004

    This research brief examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade, and discusses ways to resolve safety-related trade disputes.

  • Food Safety Issues for Meat/Poultry Products and International Trade

    AIB-789-4, February 28, 2004

    This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in meat and poultry products can be affected by food safety concerns.

  • U. S. Tobacco Import Update

    TBS-2003-01, February 12, 2004

    U.S. imports (arrivals) of foreign-grown tobacco leaf and stems slipped from 587 million pounds in 2001/02 (July-June) to 580 million pounds during 2002/03 (July-June). Cigar and unstemmed flue-cured imports advanced. Burley, stemmed flue-cured, and stems arrivals slipped. During the same period, imports for consumption of leaf and stems fell 3 percent to 553 million pounds. Use of foreign-grown flue-cured fell 24 percent. Imported burley changed little and Oriental leaf use advanced a few million pounds. The share of foreign-grown cigar leaf used by the U.S. industry advanced slightly. Imports of flue-cured and burley tobacco continue to be regulated by a tariff-rate quota.

  • The Poultry Sector in Middle-Income Countries and Its Feed Requirements: The Case of Egypt

    WRS-0302, December 03, 2003

    Analysis of world meat production reveals poultry as the fastest growing livestock sector in many middle-income countries, including Egypt. While income growth fuels rising demand for meat, other factors often determine how that demand will be satisfied. Domestic and trade policies, as well as resource constraints, in middle-income countries affect the mix between domestic production and imports of meat and feedgrains. Egypt represents an interesting example of the interaction between domestic production and imports of meat and feeds. Forecasts of derived feed demand for Egypt's poultry industry to 2010 indicate a rising dependency on world markets for imports of feed and meat-choices facing many other middle-income countries.

  • North American Agricultural Market Integration and Its Impact on the Food and Fiber System

    AIB-784, September 30, 2003

    Economic change and market dynamics have fundamentally altered the structure and performance of agricultural markets in the United States, Canada, and Mexico within the last 25 years. Many factors have helped shape the current North American food and fiber system, including technological change, domestic farm policies, international trade agreements, and the economic forces of supply and demand. Ratification of NAFTA, for example, helped spark a surge in trade and investment among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, deepening integration of North American agriculture. In recent years, efforts to further integrate the continental market seem to have slowed. Broadening the scope of NAFTA to include institutional reforms that lead to a more unified system of commercial law, the establishment of common antitrust and regulatory procedures, harmonization of product standards, and increased coordination of domestic farm, market, and macroeconomic policies would deepen market integration and enhance market efficiency and growth within North America.

  • Multilateralism and Regionalism: Dual Strategies for Trade Reform

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2003

    The article describes the U.S. strategy in the area of agricultural trade reform. The strategy contains two distinct but reinforcing elements: (1) multilateralism, in which the United States actively participates in the agricultural trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization; and (2) regionalism, in which the United States pursues regional trade agreements with like-minded trade partners.

  • Are U.S. And EU Agricultural Policies Becoming More Similar?

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2003

    Throughout much of the post-World War II period, agricultural policy in the U.S. and European Union (EU) has focused on supporting farm income primarily through price supports. Both countries supported commodity prices through purchase and storage of surplus commodities. The U.S. relied more on producer loans secured by commodities and acreage controls, while the EU relied more on export subsidies to dispose of surpluses. Both the U.S. and the EU have significantly changed their commodity policies in the past decade. While their policies have evolved in similar directions in some respects, important differences remain.

  • USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2012

    WAOB-031, February 10, 2003

    This report provides long-run (10-year) baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2012. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.

  • Food Security Assessment GFA13

    GFA-13, April 01, 2002

    The Food Security Assessment report provides food gap and hunger projections for 67 potentially food insecure countries in North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and NIS.