Publications

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  • Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook: September 2017

    SSSM-349, September 18, 2017

    Forecast sugar deliveries shifted from 2016/17 to 2017/18 due to hurricane-related disruptions.

  • Sugar: Background for 1990 Farm Legislation

    AGES-9006, February 01, 1990

    This report address considerations in the 1990 farm bill debate for sugar, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980's. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS displaced sugar in many uses, particularly beverages. After a decade of steady decline, sugar consumption in 1987 began rising at a slow rate. U.S. imports of sugar for consumption fell from an average of over 4 million short tons in 1979-81, to about 1 million tons in 1988. U.S. sugar import quotas have been binding since May 1982, to keep prices at levels required by the sugar program. Regional sugar balances have altered in the 1980's, and beet sugar now provides about 45 percent of U.S. sugar use, up from about 30 percent. The world sugar market changed much in the past decade, moderating the price cycle and extending the period of persistently low prices.

  • Sugar: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation

    AER-711, April 03, 1995

    This report address considerations in the 1995 farm bill debate for sugar, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. Current U.S. sugar price support programs have their origin in 1981 legislation. The price support program has resulted in significant expansion of the industry in the last decade. Beet sugar production has expanded in many regions, but has contracted in some western regions, particularly California. Cane sugar production has expanded in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas, but has shrunk in Hawaii where costs are high. National average costs of producing beet and cane sugar have been declining in the last decade, and returns have exceeded costs. Average production costs of refined beet sugar are below those of refined cane sugar. Overall sugar demand has been growing at about 2 percent a year since 1986, when the rapid replacement of sugar by high-fructose corn syrup ended. Sugar imports under quota have fallen to levels close to the minimum provided by law. Prospects are for sugar production and consumption to continue to rise. No major impacts on the industry are expected from the GATT Uruguay Round or NAFTA.

  • The 1996 Farm Act Increases Market Orientation

    AIB-726, August 01, 1996

    The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, a milestone in U.S. agricultural policy, provides new farm sector law for 1996-2002, fundamentally redesigning income support programs and discontinuing supply management programs for producers of many commodities. This bulletin provides a general overview of major changes related to production agriculture resulting from the commodity provisions, agricultural trade provisions, and conservation provisions of the Act.

  • The 2002 Farm Bill: Provisions and Economic Implications

    AP-022, January 23, 2008

    The Farm Security Act of 2002, which governs Federal farm programs for 2002-07, was signed into law on May 13, 2002. This publication presents an overview of the Act and a side-by-side comparison of 1996-2001 farm legislation and the 2002 Act. For selected programs, information is provided to additional analyses of key changes, program overview, and economic implications.

  • The EU Sugar Policy Regime and Implications of Reform

    ERR-59, July 16, 2008

    ERS examines the implications and potential impacts of the first major reform of the 2005 reform of the European Union's sugar policy, the first major reform of the policy since 1968.

  • The Estimated Amount, Value, and Calories of Postharvest Food Losses at the Retail and Consumer Levels in the United States

    EIB-121, February 20, 2014

    In the United States, 31 percent-or 133 billion pounds-of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at the retail and consumer levels in 2010 went uneaten. The estimated value of this food loss was $161.6 billion using retail prices. For the first time, ERS estimated the calories associated with food loss: 141 trillion in 2010, or 1,249 calories per capita per day. Errata: On June 27, 2014, Tables 2, 3, and 5 were updated to correct some incorrect values. The errors did not affect summary totals in the tables or report findings.

  • The Influence of Income and Prices on Global Dietary Patterns by Country, Age, and Gender

    ERR-225, March 02, 2017

    Worldwide changes in eating habits are contributing to a global rise in obesity and related diseases across all countries. To address this issue, this report investigates how income and prices influence dietary habits globally.

  • U.S. Food Commodity Consumption Broken Down by Demographics, 1994-2008

    ERR-206, March 30, 2016

    ERS drew on national dietary intake surveys to break down the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data and show food consumption by demographic characteristics for 63 commodities (who eats what food commodities and how much).

  • U.S. Sugar Program at a Crossroads

    Amber Waves, September 03, 2007

    The U.S. sugar program, designed to operate at no cost to the U.S. Government, is coming under increasing pressure as a result of higher imports allowed under NAFTA and other trade agreements.

  • U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present and Possible Future

    AES-87, June 17, 2015

    Establishing more normal economic relations with Cuba could potentially generate growth in U.S.-Cuba trade, foster greater productivity in Cuba's economy, and stimulate exports of meat, dairy products, rice, and other commodities to Cuba.

  • U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present, and Possible Future

    Amber Waves, August 03, 2015

    In December 2014, the United States announced that it would implement executive actions designed to ease the restrictions on trade, remittances, and travel with Cuba. This report explores the potential implications for U.S. agricultural exports. Establishment of a more normal economic relationship with Cuba has the potential to foster additional growth in U.S.-Cuba agricultural trade.

  • World Raw Sugar Prices: The Influence of Brazilian Costs of Production and World Surplus/Deficit Measures

    SSSM-297-01, May 29, 2013

    Brazil is the world's leading sugar producer and, over the long term, world sugar prices are determined by production costs in Center/South Brazil, as well as the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real .