Publications

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  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: September 2012

    LDPM-219, September 18, 2012

    Impacts of high feed prices shake out across markets.

  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: September 2013

    LDPM-231, September 18, 2013

    Corn-Belt Dryness Tweaks Meat Sectors

  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: September 2015

    LDPM-255, September 17, 2015

    The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for September 2015 analyzes animal product markets based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report for beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and dairy production and trade.

  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: September 2016

    LDPM-267, September 16, 2016

    The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for September 2016 analyzes economic impacts on animal product markets of month-to-month changes in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report.

  • Long-Term Growth in U.S. Cheese Consumption May Slow

    LDPM-193-01, August 12, 2010

    Cheese production and markets have emerged as important elements of the dairy industry over the past three decades. Supply-and-use analysis shows an upward trend in total cheese consumption over the past three decades. Nielsen 2005 retail Homescan data were used to analyze cheese consumption by location as well as by income, age, and racial/ethnic groups. Own-price and expenditure demand elasticities were also calculated using the Nielsen data. To the extent that increases in consumers' food expenditure translate into more cheese purchases, it is expected that total cheese consumption will continue to rise. However, changes in the demographic profile of the U.S. population may somewhat slow future growth.

  • Mandatory Price Reporting, Market Efficiency, and Price Discovery in Livestock Markets

    LDPM-254-01, September 03, 2015

    ERS found that the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act, up for renewal in 2015, has improved the markets' overall speed in absorbing new information and that it generally benefits livestock feeders, meatpackers, and-ultimately-consumers.

  • Market Integration in the North American Hog Industries

    LDPM-12501, November 24, 2004

    About 8 percent of the hogs slaughtered in the United States in 2004 will originate in Canada-many more than 10 years ago. Canadian hogs have flowed into the United States in response to significant structural changes in the U.S. pork industry, concurrent with policy changes in Canada. This, combined with a strong U.S./Canadian dollar exchange rate, created incentives to expand hog operations in Ontario and to start production in Manitoba. In 15 years, an open border and pronounced breeding herd efficiencies helped to increase Canadian hog exports to the United States by more than eight-fold.

  • Market Integration of the North American Animal Products Complex

    LDPM-13101, May 26, 2005

    The beef, pork, and poultry industries of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have tended to become more economically integrated over the past two decades. Sanitary barriers, which are designed to protect people and animals from diseases, are some of the most significant barriers to fuller integration of meat and animal markets. In addition, diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, have caused major disruptions to beef and cattle trade.

  • Pork Policies in Japan

    LDPM-105-01, March 26, 2003

    This report provides a detailed description and analysis of policies used by Japan to support its hog producers. Domestic policies include regional deficiency payment programs offering compensation to farmers when market prices fall below specified targets and subsidized hazard insurance. At the border, tariffs and the gate price system are applied to imported pork. The gate price is a minimum price at which imports are allowed to enter Japan. Safeguards are used to increase the tariff and the gate price if import growth exceeds trigger levels. Japan's policies raise the price of pork to consumers and limit the ability of foreign producers to compete in the Japanese market.

  • Retail and Consumer Aspects of the Organic Milk Market

    LDPM-155-01, May 22, 2007

    Consumer interest in organic milk has burgeoned, resulting in rapid growth in retail sales of organic milk. New analysis of scanner data from 2004 finds that most purchasers of organic milk are White, high income, and well educated. The data indicate that organic milk purchased carries the USDA organic seal about 60 percent of the time, most organic milk is sold in supermarkets, organic price premiums are large and vary by region, and most organic milk is branded.

  • Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Tariff-Rate Quotas for U.S. Meat Exports to the European Union

    LDPM-245-01, December 02, 2014

    The EU is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of beef, pork, and poultry, but EU tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) policies continue to limit imports of U.S. meats.

  • Slaughter and Processing Options and Issues for Locally Sourced Meat

    LDPM-216-01, June 19, 2012

    ERS evaluates slaughter and processing capacity for local meat production, and the options available to livestock producers selling to local markets. Local demand is still a small share of total demand.

  • Tariff Reforms and the Competitiveness of U.S. Beef in Japan

    LDPM-259-01, January 29, 2016

    ERS examines how Japanese importers view U.S. beef vis-a-vis imports from Australia and other countries, how imports differ across beef products, and how market access reform might affect Japanese beef imports.

  • The New Agricultural Trade Negotiations: Background and Issues for the U.S. Beef Sector

    LDPM-8901, December 07, 2001

    New negotiations on trade in agriculture were recently initiated by the World Trade Organization. The negotiations focus on extending the gains to world trade achieved in the 1994 Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA), which limited the use of tariffs and non-tariff barriers, export subsidies, and the type and level of spending for domestic support programs. For the beef sector, the URAA further increased U.S. and world beef trade. While export subsidies and non-tariff barriers may continue to limit the market for U.S. beef exports, obtaining additional increases in market access in these negotiations may increase U.S. beef exports.

  • Trade, the Expanding Mexican Beef Industry, and Feedlot and Stocker Cattle Production in Mexico

    LDPM-206-01, August 22, 2011

    This report characterizes Mexican feeder-calf and fed cattle production systems in the context of the imports of Mexican feeder cattle into the United States. The increase in cattle feeding in Mexico will increasingly affect U.S. feeder cattle imports and U.S. beef exports to Mexico in ambiguous ways as Mexican population and incomes increase. Cattle production also depends on geo-climatic factors, disease and pest challenges, feeding systems, and feeder cattle export patterns.

  • U.S. 2003 and 2004 Livestock and Poultry Trade Influenced by Animal Disease and Trade Restrictions

    LDPM-12001, July 01, 2004

    Disease outbreaks and related trade restrictions have slowed previously expected high growth in many U.S. animal product exports, with U.S. beef exports most affected. This report discusses how animal diseases and disease-related trade restrictions have influenced trade in animal products in the past few years, with an emphasis on 2003 and forecasts for 2004. The most important animal diseases that have affected trade in animal products in recent years have been bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Avian Influenza (AI), and Exotic Newcastle Disease (END).

  • U.S.-Mexico Broiler Trade: A Bird's Eye View

    LDPM-102-01, December 06, 2002

    This study examines sanitary requirements and regulations currently governing the U.S.-Mexico broiler trade. A sensitivity analysis, using a cost-minimization mathematical programming model, detects minimal economic impact on the U.S. broiler market if Mexico is allowed to ship fresh, chilled, and frozen poultry to the United States.

  • Where's the (Not) Meat?-Byproducts From Beef and Pork Production

    LDPM-209-01, November 21, 2011

    The report describes the many uses for animal byproducts-both inedible and edible-and estimates the volume of production of beef and pork variety meats in the United States in addition to the proportion of value added to the live animal from the byproducts. The value added to U.S. meat trade and the role of variety meats in the global marketplace is also evaluated.

  • World Events Frame Outlook for Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry

    LDPM-9601, June 25, 2002

    This report examines changes in the livestock, dairy, and poultry industry in 2001 and provides initial assessments of 2002 based on forecasts from the June 2002 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates. In 2001, U.S. red meat and poultry production stabilized as lower beef production was partially offset by higher pork and poultry production. In 2002, slightly larger projected growth in meat production (2 percent) and lower exports are expected to result in lower wholesale prices for cattle, hogs, and poultry. Recovery in milk per cow is expected to override declining milk cow numbers and boost 2002 milk production by 2 to 3 percent.