Publications

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  • Global Trade Patterns in Fruits and Vegetables

    WRS-0406, June 01, 2004

    International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions-the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) area, and Asia (East, Southeast, and South)-have remained as both the major destinations and sources of supply. A substantial share of their trade is intraregional, particularly that of the EU. All the three regions, however, depend on Southern Hemisphere countries for imports of juices and off-season fresh fruits, and on equatorial regions for bananas, the leading fresh fruit import. In addition to global north-south trading, due mostly to the counter-cyclical seasons of the two hemispheres, Asian trade has also become much more important since the 1980s as incomes and populations have grown and policies changed.

  • How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    AIB-790, July 20, 2004

    This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or less per serving. Consumers can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  • Structural Change Brings New Challenges to Soybean Price Forecasters

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    South America has surpassed the U.S. in soybean production and displaced the U.S. as the dominant player in the global soybean market. This has put downward pressure on U.S. soybean prices, changing the market dynamics of the soybean sector and the economic relationships that have traditionally been used by USDA for price forecasting.

  • On the Map: Milk Production Shifts West

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    Since 1980, milk production in the U.S. has increased almost 33 per- cent, and regional production growth has been most pronounced in the Pacific and Mountain West

  • Research Areas

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    Indicators: Markets and Trade, Diet and Health, Resources and Environment and Rural America - September 2004

  • Indicators

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2004

    Selected statistics on agriculture and trade, diet and health, natural resources, and rural America, September 2004

  • In the Long Run

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2004

    Indicators: In the Long Run - November 2004

  • Indicators

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2004

    Farm, Rural, Natural Resources and Food and Fiber Sector Indicators section - November 2004

  • Behind the Data

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2004

    Indicators behind the data - November 2004

  • Contracts, Markets, and Prices: Organizing the Production and Use of Agricultural Commodities

    AER-837, November 01, 2004

    Demand for specific product attributes is making contracts the choice over traditional spot markets for many livestock commodities and some major crops-e.g., sugar beets, fruit, tomatoes.

  • Research Areas

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2004

    Indicators: Markets and Trade, Diet and Health, Resources and Environment and Rural America - November 2004

  • Trends in U.S. Tobacco Farming

    TBS-25702, November 08, 2004

    Tobacco farms are becoming fewer in number and U.S. tobacco acreage has declined since the 1950s. This article provides a snapshot of tobacco farm characteristics as of 2002. The number of farms growing tobacco in the United States dropped from 512,000 in 1954 to 56,977 in 2002, with 37,013 classified at tobacco farms, that is, tobacco constituted at least 50 percent of their sales. All farms producing tobacco averaged about 7.5 acres in 2002, compared with 9.0 acres in 1997. Tobacco farms averaged only 62 acres of harvested cropland and 175 acres of total farmland.

  • Pork Quality and the Role of Market Organization

    AER-835, November 08, 2004

    This study addresses changes in the organization of the U.S. pork industry, most notably marketing contracts between packers and producers, by exploring their function in addressing pork quality concerns. A number of developments brought quality concerns to the forefront. These include health concerns and corresponding preferences for lean pork, growing incidence of undesirable quality attributes (e.g., pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat, a result of breeding for leanness), heightened concerns over food safety and related regulatory programs, and expansion into global markets. Organizational arrangements can facilitate industry efforts to address pork quality needs by reducing measuring costs, controlling quality attributes that are difficult to measure, facilitating adaptations to changing quality standards, and reducing transaction costs associated with relationship-specific investments in branding programs.

  • On the Map

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2004

    Indicators: On the Map - November 2004

  • Long-Lived Tobacco Program to End

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2005

    In October 2004, Congress passed legislation that eliminates tobacco quota and price support programs at the end of the 2004 crop year. Quota holders and producers will be compensated for the quota they own and produce. The buyout will be financed by assessments on tobacco product manufacturers and importers. With the elimination of quota and price support, tobacco production is likely to move to regions amenable to mechanization and where adequate economies of scale can be achieved and U.S. prices could fall 30-40 percent.

  • Behind the Data

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2005

    Indicators: Behind the Data - February 2005

  • On the Map

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2005

    Indicators: On the Map - February 2005

  • Indicators

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2005

    Farm, Rural, Natural Resources and Food and Fiber Sector Indicators - February 2005

  • Market Access for High-Value Foods

    AER-840, February 01, 2005

    This report examines global food trade patterns and the role of WTO market access rules in shaping the composition of global food trade.

  • In the Long Run

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2005

    Indicators: In the Long Run - February 2005