Publications

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  • Cotton and Wool Outlook: July 2017

    CWS-17g, July 14, 2017

    The July 2017 Cotton and Wool Outlook report presents and discusses USDA's latest 2017/18 U.S. and world cotton supply and demand projections. The report also includes the latest U.S. textile and apparel trade data.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook: October 2017

    CWS-17j, October 16, 2017

    The October 2017 Cotton and Wool Outlook report presents and discusses USDA's latest 2017/18 U.S. and world cotton supply and demand projections. The report also includes the latest U.S. textile and apparel trade data.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook: September 2012

    CWS-12G, September 13, 2012

    The latest USDA projections for U.S. and world cotton supply and demand are presented and discussed in this report. Relevant fiber data tables and charts also are provided.

  • Cotton and Wool Outlook: September 2017

    CWS-17i, September 14, 2017

    The September 2017 Cotton and Wool Outlook report presents and discusses USDA's latest 2017/18 U.S. and world cotton supply and demand projections. The report also includes the latest U.S. textile and apparel trade data.

  • Crop Outlook Reflects Near-Term Prices and Longer Term Market Trends

    Amber Waves, May 20, 2013

    U.S. corn and wheat acreage is expected to increase in 2013, soybean acreage is expected to stay mostly unchanged, and rice and cotton acreage will likely decline. Acreage shifts in recent years reflect growing domestic and foreign demand for U.S. corn and soybeans and increased global competition in wheat, cotton, and other commodity markets.

  • Cuba's Citrus Industry: Growth and Change

    FTS-30901, April 30, 2004

    Cuban citrus is a major commercial crop and foreign exchange earner. The 1990s saw an industry collapse and a shift from fresh oranges to processed citrus products and grapefruit production. If commercial relationships with the United States were restored, Cuba's citrus industry would likely look to U.S. markets for new opportunities for Cuban fresh citrus, processed citrus products, and citrus byproducts. In turn, Cuba's citrus industry could become a market for U.S. exports of technology, citrus rootstock and other inputs, and capital. New U.S.-Cuban partnerships could develop to partially integrate citrus production, processing, and marketing for U.S. markets.

  • Cuba's Tropical Fruit Industry

    FTS-30902, April 09, 2004

    Cuba's tropical fruit industry primarily caters to domestic markets with fresh fruits that are Cuban diet staples. Plantains and bananas account for over 70 percent of production. Tropical fruit production fell with Cuba's collapsing economy in the early 1990s. With ideal climate and land resources, production potential remains high. Production and demand will both recover and grow as Cuba's economy recovers. If commercial relationships with the United States were restored, Cuba could initially look to U.S. sources for quality tropical fruits for Cuba's growing tourist market. Eventually, as Cuba's economy and its tropical fruit sector recover, the United States could provide new market opportunities for an increasingly competitive Cuban tropical fruit sector.

  • Declining Orange Consumption in Japan: Generational Changes or Something Else?

    ERR-71, February 05, 2009

    The aging of Japan's population only partially explains the downward trend in orange consumption, and the negative trend could continue.

  • Deconstructing Wheat Price Spikes: A Model of Supply and Demand, Financial Speculation, and Commodity Price Comovement

    ERR-165, April 29, 2014

    An ERS econometric model shows that supply-and-demand factors specific to the wheat market largely accounted for observed price variation in 2008. In contrast, speculation by index traders had comparatively little influence on prices.

  • Did You Know?

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2007

    Did You Know? page from November 2007 issue of Amber Waves

  • Dynamic PEATSim Model Documenting Its Use in Analyzing Global Commodity Markets

    TB-1933, July 18, 2012

    This report documents the updated version of the Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade Simulation (PEATSim) model developed by USDA's Economic Research Service. PEATSim is a global model, covering 31 commodities and 27 countries/regions. The model, consistent with economic theory, provides a flexible country and commodity aggregation and accounts for cross-commodity linkages and interactions. The report includes a presentation and discussion of the structure and specific features of the revamped model, along with the theoretical underpinnings. It also documents an application of the model to illustrate its dynamic structure and to demonstrate the differential behavior.

  • Economic Aspects of Revenue-Based Commodity Support

    ERR-72, April 07, 2009

    ERS examines the economic effects of two theoretical scenarios in which commodity support is determined by shortfalls in farm revenue, unlike current price-based programs or yield-based assistance.

  • Economic Issues in the Coexistence of Organic, Genetically Engineered (GE), and Non-GE Crops

    EIB-149, February 24, 2016

    ERS synthesizes production data on GE crop varieties, organic crops (which exclude GE seed), and conventionally grown non-GE crops, and considers coexistence practices and economic losses due to unintended presence of GE material.

  • Economic and Policy Implications of Wind-Borne Entry of Asian Soybean Rust into the United States

    OCS-04D02, April 27, 2004

    American soybean producers and the research, regulatory, and extension institutions supporting them are preparing for the potential wind-borne entry of Asian soybean rust into the United States. This report examines how the economic impacts of soybean rust establishment will depend on the timing, location, spread, and severity of rust infestation and on how soybean and other crop producers, livestock producers, and consumers of agricultural commodities respond to this new pathogen.

  • Economics of Water Quality Protection From Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice

    AER-782, November 30, 1999

    Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of production. The information necessary to design economically efficient pollution control policies is almost always lacking. Instead, policies can be designed to achieve specific environmental or other similarly related goals at least cost, given transaction costs and any other political, legal, or informational constraints that may exist. This report outlines the economic characteristics of five instruments that can be used to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution (economic incentives, standards, education, liability, and research) and discusses empirical research related to the use of these instruments.

  • Effects of Recent Energy Price Reductions on U.S. Agriculture

    BIO-04, June 02, 2015

    Sharply lower energy prices begun in late 2014 will benefit the agriculture sector mainly through lower transport and production costs. Energy price decreases are projected to lower production costs by about $5 billion in 2015 and in 2016.

  • Estimating the Effects of Selected Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade on U.S.-EU Agricultural Trade

    ERR-199, November 10, 2015

    Non-tariff measures (e.g., sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade) were found to be significant impediments to agriculture trade in selected commodities between the United States and the European Union.

  • Estimating the Substitution of Distillers' Grains for Corn and Soybean Meal in the U.S. Feed Complex

    FDS-11I01, October 13, 2011

    Corn-based dry-mill ethanol production and its coproducts - notably distillers' dried grains with soluble (DDGS) - have surged in recent years. The report estimates the potential substitution of DDGS for corn and soybean meal in livestock feeding and the impact of substitution upon the U.S. feed complex.

  • Ethanol and Agriculture: Effect of Increased Production on Crop and Livestock Sectors

    AER-667, May 03, 1993

    Expanded ethanol production could increase U.S. farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, so soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The U.S. balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline.

  • Ethanol and a Changing Agricultural Landscape

    ERR-86, November 18, 2009

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established specific targets for the production of biofuel in the United States. Until advanced technologies become commercially viable, meeting these targets will increase demand for traditional agricultural commodities used to produce ethanol, resulting in land-use, production, and price changes throughout the farm sector. This report summarizes the estimated effects of meeting the EISA targets for 2015 on regional agricultural production and the environment. Meeting EISA targets for ethanol production is estimated to expand U.S. cropped acreage by nearly 5 million acres by 2015, an increase of 1.6 percent over what would otherwise be expected. Much of the growth comes from corn acreage, which increases by 3.5 percent over baseline projections. Water quality and soil carbon will also be affected, in some cases by greater percentages than suggested by changes in the amount of cropped land. The economic and environmental implications of displacing a portion of corn ethanol production with ethanol produced from crop residues are also estimated.