Publications

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  • Market-Oriented Agriculture: The Declining Role of Government Commodity Programs in Agricultural Production Decisions

    AER-671, June 01, 1993

    The portion of U.S. agricultural production covered by government income support payments has declined over the span of the last two 5-year farm acts. Consequently, nongovernmental supply and demand factors (market forces) are becoming more important in influencing farmers' production decisions. This report illustrates how agricultural supply has moved toward greater reliance on market forces (market orientation) by examining the declining role of government commodity programs in production decisions for corn, wheat, rice, and upland cotton. Payment coverage ratios, which measure the percentage of expected production covered by deficiency payments (income support payments made by the Federal Government to producers of certain agricultural commodities), have decreased. Thus, the role of government commodity programs in influencing farmers' production decisions at both the individual farm and national (aggregate) levels has declined. As a result, the share of US. cropland on which planting decisions are made based on market signals has increased, a trend toward market orientation that began with the 1985 farm act and continued with 1990 farm legislation.

  • NAFTA at 13: Implementation Nears Completion

    WRS-0701, March 29, 2007

    Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is drawing to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA's transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade will be removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically dismantled numerous barriers to regional agricultural trade. During the implementation period, the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. Agricultural trade within the free-trade area has grown dramatically, and Canadian and Mexican industries that rely on U.S. agricultural inputs have expanded. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importance of Canadian and Mexican produce to U.S. fruit and vegetable consumption is growing.

  • NAFTA at 15: Building on Free Trade

    WRS-09-03, March 31, 2009

    Implementation of the agricultural provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has drawn to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA's transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade were removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically dismantled numerous barriers to regional agricultural trade. During the implementation period, the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. Agricultural trade within the free-trade area has grown dramatically, and Canadian and Mexican industries that rely on U.S. agricultural inputs have expanded. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importance of Canadian and Mexican produce to U.S. fruit and vegetable consumption is growing.

  • Pesticide Use in U.S. Agriculture: 21 Selected Crops, 1960-2008

    EIB-124, May 16, 2014

    Pesticide use on 21 selected crops more than tripled from 1960 to 1981, but has since declined from 632 million pounds to 516 million pounds in 2008, partly due to more efficient active ingredients, Integrated Pest Management, and GE seeds.

  • Potential Farm-Level Effects of Eliminating Direct Payments

    EIB-103, November 16, 2012

    A number of Farm Act proposals call for ending the direct payment program. ERS analysis suggests that for the majority of farms receiving direct payments, this would not result in substantial decline in financial well-being.

  • Price Spikes in Global Rice Markets Benefit U.S. Growers, at Least in the Short Term

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2010

    Price spikes in global rice markets benefit U.S. growers, at least in the short term.

  • Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985

    AIB-498, April 01, 1986

    The Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198) establishes a comprehensive framework within which the Secretary of Agriculture will administer agriculture and food programs from 1986 through 1990. This report describes the Act's provisions for dairy, wool and mohair, wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, peanuts, soybeans, and sugar (including income and price supports, disaster payments, and acreage reductions); other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; research, extension, and teaching; food stamps; and marketings. These provisions are compared with earlier legislation.

  • Rice Backgrounder

    RCS-200601, December 08, 2006

    U.S. rice farming is a high-cost, large-scale production operation that depends on the global market for about half its annual sales. Government payments per acre are high compared with other program crops, as is the share of the sector's income accounted for by payments. While domestic demand for rice continues to grow, the outlook for rice farm incomes is tempered by higher production costs, modest increases in farm prices, and continued strong competition in many international markets from lower cost Asian exporters.

  • Rice Imports Help Alleviate Haiti’s Food Needs

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2016

    Haiti is a major market for U.S. rice, accounting for about 10 percent of U.S. rice exports. Rice imports—which were negligible prior to 1986 due to quantitative limits on imports—have improved Haiti’s food situation, increasing per capita calorie availability by about 11 percent between 1985 and 2011.

  • Rice Outlook Tables: March 2017

    RCS-17C, March 13, 2017

    The March 2017 outlook tables provide the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates report.

  • Rice Outlook Tables: March 2018

    RCS-18C, March 12, 2018

    The March 2018 Rice Outlook Tables contain the latest forecast for U.S. and global rice supply, use, and price.

  • Rice Outlook: April 2016

    RCS-16D, April 14, 2016

    The April 2016 Rice Outlook report will contain U.S. and global rice markets forecasts for 2015/16 and any revisions to 2014/15.

  • Rice Outlook: August 2016

    RCS-16H, August 16, 2016

    The July 2016 Rice Outlook Report will contain updated U.S. and global rice markets forecasts for 2016/17 and any revisions to 2015/16.

  • Rice Outlook: February 2016

    RCS-16B, February 11, 2016

    The February 2016 Rice Outlook Report will contain U.S. and global rice markets forecasts for 2015/16 and any revisions to 2014/15.

  • Rice Outlook: January 2016

    RCS-16A, January 14, 2016

    The January 2016 Rice Outlook Report contains U.S. and global rice markets forecasts for 2015/16 and any revisions to 2014/15.

  • Rice Outlook: January 2018

    RCS-18A, January 17, 2018

    The January 2018 Rice Outlook Report will contain updated U.S. and global rice market forecasts for 2017/18.

  • Rice Outlook: July 2016

    RCS-16G, July 14, 2016

    The July 2016 Rice Outlook report will contain updated U.S. and global rice market forecasts for 2016/17 and any revisions to 2015/16.

  • Rice Outlook: June 2016

    RCS-16F, June 14, 2016

    The June 2016 Rice Outlook report will contain updated U.S. and global rice markets forecasts for 2016/17 and any revisions to 2015/16.

  • Rice Outlook: April 2012

    RCS-12D, April 11, 2012

    The first survey-based indication of 2012/13 U.S. rice plantings peg area at 2.56 million acres, down 5 percent from a year earlier and the smallest since 1987/88. Medium-grain accounts for all of the indicated decline. Growers indicated smaller plantings in all reported States except Louisiana and Missouri.

  • Rice Outlook: April 2013

    RCS-13D, April 12, 2013

    The U.S. 2012/13 domestic and residual use forecast lowered to 120.0 million cwt.