Publications

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  • A Historic Enlargement: Ten Countries Prepare To Join the European Union

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2004

    In May 2004, eight Central and Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), plus Cyprus and Malta, will join the European Union (EU). This enlargement of the EU, the largest in its history, will bring profound changes.

  • A New Outlook for the U.S.-Mexico Sugar and Sweetener Market

    SSSM-335-01, August 11, 2016

    ERS examines the U.S. trade remedy investigations on sugar imports from Mexico and considers how the recent "suspension agreement" restrictions on these imports change the outlook for the integrated U.S.-Mexico sweetener market.

  • A Richer World Wants a Richer Diet

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2003

    A number of forces, such as income, urbanization and population growth, are changing the way the world eats. Of these forces, income—both its level and growth—has had the greatest effect.

  • A Visual Primer for the Food and Agricultural Sectors

    Amber Waves, December 16, 2013

    Ag and Food Statistics: Charting the Essentials, released in September 2013, is a collection of charts and maps covering fundamental statistics and trends related to the U.S. agricultural and food sectors. This data feature highlights a few of the questions that can be answered by the Essentials.

  • APEC Agriculture and Trade: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Region Buying More U.S. Consumer-Ready Food Products

    AER-734, September 11, 1996

    In fiscal 1995, more than 60 percent of U.S. farm exports, worth a record $33 billion, went to Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum members. Bulk exports showed the most dramatic growth, benefiting greatly from China's conversion from a net grain exporter into a major net importer. Chinese imports are projected to increase further over the long term. Continued trade liberalization throughout APEC, rapid economic growth in its developing economies, and limited arable land in China and East Asia will ensure continued growth in U.S. farm exports to APEC markets-especially meat for East Asia and grains for China and Southeast Asia.

  • Agricultural Export Programs: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation

    AER-716, June 01, 1995

    Since 1985, the United States has heavily supported agricultural exports with an array of programs. A central issue related to those programs is how best to support farm exports, and farm income, with lower price subsidies under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and with U.S. budget constraints.

  • Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries

    ERR-6, May 20, 2005

    Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. The analysis finds that the programs offer significant benefits for some countries, mostly the higher income developing countries. Economic benefits in the least developed countries have been modest.

  • Agriculture in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    ERR-176, October 28, 2014

    The proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership is expected to increase the value of intraregional agricultural trade by about 6 percent in 2025, and increase U.S. agricultural exports to the region by 5 percent, compared with the baseline.

  • Agriculture in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Tariffs, Tariff-Rate Quotas, and Non-Tariff Measures

    ERR-198, November 10, 2015

    Model results under three possible scenarios suggest the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the United States and the European Union could lead to higher ag exports for both, particularly for the United States.

  • Alternative Policies to Agricultural Export Taxes That Are Less Market Distorting

    ERR-187, June 09, 2015

    ERS examines effects of alternative policies to conventional export taxes on countries' domestic and trade markets for agricultural products -- policies that are less market distorting and less welfare diminishing.

  • Americans Have Growing Appetites for Imported Foods

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2005

    In fiscal year 2005, the U.S. may realize a agricultural trade deficit for the first time since 1958, the result of rapidly rising food imports. One reason for rising imports is higher import prices brought on by the falling value of the dollar. The surge in imports is also due to rising consumer demand for prepared and processed foods.

  • Assessing the Growth of U.S. Broiler and Poultry Meat Exports

    LDPM-23101, November 08, 2013

    The United States is the world's second largest broiler meat exporter, and exports are a valuable source of income for the industry. ERS examines factors affecting the growth in broiler meat exports, focusing on several major markets.

  • Biofuel Use in International Markets: The Importance of Trade

    EIB-144, September 01, 2015

    The U.S. has emerged as a major exporter of biofuels, yet it still imports biofuels in order to meet government mandates. Several other countries have emerged as major exporters, and some have taken steps to restrict biofuel trade.

  • CAP Reform of 2003-04

    WRS-0407, August 25, 2004

    The European Union continued to reform its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2003-04, building on the reforms of 1992 and 1999. The centerpiece of the latest reforms is the introduction of a single farm payment (SFP), which is paid to EU farmers based on historical payments unrelated to current production decisions. These recent reforms allow the EU to assume an aggressive position in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations on agriculture, while allowing farmers to make production decisions based more on market signals than on EU policy interventions.

  • Calculating the Jobs Associated With U.S. Agricultural Exports

    Amber Waves, May 04, 2015

    In calendar year 2013, the $144.38 billion of U.S. agricultural exports produced an additional $176 billion in economic activity for a total of $320.3 billion of economic output. U.S. agricultural exports supported 1,094,400 full-time civilian jobs in 2013, including 793,900 jobs in the non-farm sector.

  • California and Iowa Remain Top U.S. Agricultural Exporting States in Fiscal 2005

    FAU-11401, June 30, 2006

    U.S. agricultural exports reached a new record in fiscal 2005 at $62.4 billion, but only $1 million higher than the record set in fiscal 2004. While California and Iowa continued their reign as top exporting states, Texas regained its third place position ahead of Illinois; Indiana moved back into the top 10. Iowa moved ahead of Illinois in soybean exports; California continued to dominate vegetables, fruits, tree nuts, seeds, and dairy.

  • Changes in U.S. Dairy Commercial Exports and Domestic Commercial Disappearance

    Amber Waves, February 02, 2015

    Traditionally, the U.S. dairy industry was driven by the domestic market. Since about 2004, U.S. dairy exports have grown substantially, primarily for products with high skim milk solids content, such as nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder. Domestic consumption has had greater growth for products with relatively high milk-fat content, such as cheese.

  • Changing Crop Area in the Former Soviet Union Region

    FDS-17B-01, February 21, 2017

    Total crop area fell substantially in Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan during the 1990's. Though area has rebounded somewhat in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, it is still far below the levels of the late Soviet period in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  • Changing Structure, Financial Risks, and Government Policy for the U.S. Dairy Industry

    ERR-205, March 09, 2016

    Dairy farmers faced a severe financial setback in 2009 as milk prices fell sharply and feed prices remained high, while the industry has undergone structural change. Recent legislation addresses the volatility in milk and feed prices.

  • China's Agricultural Imports Boomed During 2003-04

    WRS-0504, May 06, 2005

    China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth in U.S. exports of soybeans, cotton, and wheat. China was the fourth-largest overseas market for U.S. farmers during 2004, accounting for 9 percent of U.S. agricultural exports. China's agricultural exports continued to climb as well, but at a rate slower than its growth in imports. The outlook for Chinese imports is favorable due to strong economic growth and continued liberalization of the economy.