Publications

Sort by: Title | Date
  • Globalization of the Processed Foods Market

    AER-742, April 02, 1997

    International commerce in processed foods substantially exceeds the value of unprocessed agricultural commodities and is expanding more rapidly. International trade in processed foods has been the most rapidly growing portion of world food and agricultural trade during the past decade. Even more significant, however, are sales from foreign affiliates of food manufacturing, grocery wholesaling and retailing, and food service firms. Foreign affiliation is acquired through foreign direct investment in foreign plants and facilities. U.S. food manufacturers' sales through foreign affiliates were more than quadruple the value of processed food exports from the United States. Foreign food manufacturers' sales through U.S. affiliates were more than double the value of processed food exports to the United States. Patterns of global commerce in processed foods are influenced by public policies addressing transportation, communication, rules for regional and multinational trade, food product and process standards, the environment, and intellectual property.

  • Structure of the Global Markets for Meat

    AIB-785, September 01, 2003

    Meat trade flows among countries and world regions are determined largely by differences among countries in their resource base, their preferences for meat types and cuts, the extent and character of barriers to trade, and the industry structure. Future growth of meat trade depends on further liberalization of protectionist barriers, eradication of animal diseases, economic development, and population growth. Trade growth is likely to feature greater complexity in trade patterns, with more countries engaging in trade, and with an increased tendency for individual countries to import and export meat cuts and offal from the same animal species.

  • International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns

    TB-1904, October 06, 2003

    This report analyzes expenditures on major consumption categories including food and different food subcategories across 114 countries. It also presents estimated expenditure responsiveness or elasticities with price and income changes for each of the major consumption categories and food subcategories for individual countries in the study. The data in this report are available electronically. See the International Food Consumption Patterns data product.

  • Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand Across 114 Countries

    TB-1925, March 19, 2010

    This report presents a simple methodology for calculating cross-price elasticities across countries, using the Frisch own-price elasticity. Cross-price elasticities are calculated for 9 major consumption categories from the 1996 International Comparison Program data across 114 countries. The consumption categories are: food, beverage, and tobacco; clothing and footwear; education; gross rent, fuel, and power; house furnishings and operations; medical care; recreation; transport and communications; and "other" items. Additionally, cross-price elasticities are calculated and reported for a two-good demand system of food and nonfood. The elasticity estimates from this report are the only available consistent cross-country cross-price elasticity estimates across this large a number of countries and consumption categories.

  • International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns: An Update Using 2005 International Comparison Program Data

    TB-1929, March 22, 2011

    In a 2003 report, International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns, ERS economists estimated income and price elasticities of demand for broad consumption categories and food categories across 114 countries using 1996 International Comparison Program (ICP) data. This report updates that analysis with an estimated two-stage demand system across 144 countries using 2005 ICP data. Advances in ICP data collection since 1996 led to better results and more accurate income and price elasticity estimates. Low-income countries spend a greater portion of their budget on necessities, such as food, while richer countries spend a greater proportion of their income on luxuries, such as recreation. Low-value staples, such as cereals, account for a larger share of the food budget in poorer countries, while high-value food items are a larger share of the food budget in richer countries. Overall, low-income countries are more responsive to changes in income and food prices and, therefore, make larger adjustments to their food consumption pattern when incomes and prices change. However, adjustments to price and income changes are not uniform across all food categories. Staple food consumption changes the least, while consumption of higher-value food items changes the most.

  • Vegetables and Pulses Outlook: June 2012

    VGS-350, June 28, 2012

    Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use of fresh-market vegetables fell less than 1 percent in 2011 compared to the previous year.

  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements: Impacts on U.S. and Foreign Suppliers in Commodity and Manufactured Food Markets

    ERR-138, August 09, 2012

    Focusing on two agricultural subsectors-commodity foods and manufactured foods-ERS quantifies the extent to which RTAs have expanded trade between member countries and altered trade between member and nonmember countries.

  • Wheat Outlook: August 2012

    WHS-12H, August 14, 2012

    The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.

  • Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook: August 2012

    LDPM-218, August 16, 2012

    Drought-motivated increases in cow slaughter and feeder cattle movements have adversely affected all cattle and beef prices and plans to increase the national cow herd.

  • Wheat Outlook: September 2012

    WHS-12I, September 14, 2012

    The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.

  • Feed Outlook: October 2012

    FDS-12J, October 15, 2012

    Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.

  • Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook: May 2013

    SSSM-297, May 16, 2013

    The Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook for May 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the May 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report and new forecasts for 2013/14. Also included is a chapter on sugar supply and use in other major producing and exporting countries and forecasts for 2013/14.

  • Rice Outlook: June 2013

    RCS-13F, June 14, 2013

    The U.S. 2013/14 rice crop is projected at 189.5 million cwt.

  • Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook: June 2013

    SSSM-298, June 18, 2013

    The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook for June 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the June 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. This edition will include a chapter on U.S. added sugars consumption, both total and per capita, for 2012, and a chapter on 2013/14 projected world sugar supply and use.

  • International Food Security Assessment, 2013-2023

    GFA-24, June 27, 2013

    The share of the population that is food insecure in 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to decline from 21 percent in 2012 to 20 percent in 2013. Key determinants of food security are food production and import capacity.

  • Rice Outlook: July 2013

    RCS-13G, July 15, 2013

    The U.S. 2013/14 rice export forecast lowered to 95.0 million cwt.

  • Rice Outlook: September 2013

    RCS-13I, September 16, 2013

    The September 2013 Rice Situation & Outlook report will contain projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global rice markets. The report is done 12 times a year and relies on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

  • Afghanistan's Wheat Flour Market: Policies and Prospects

    WHS-13I-01, October 23, 2013

    Afghanistan's milling industry has been slow to rebuild, due to highly variable domestic wheat supplies and competition from imported flour, largely from Pakistan where wheat producers and flour millers receive Government support.

  • Assessing the Growth of U.S. Broiler and Poultry Meat Exports

    LDPM-23101, November 08, 2013

    The United States is the world's second largest broiler meat exporter, and exports are a valuable source of income for the industry. ERS examines factors affecting the growth in broiler meat exports, focusing on several major markets.

  • Rice Outlook: November 2013

    RCS-13K, November 13, 2013

    The 2013/14 rough-rice season-average price forecasts were raised for all rice and by class.