Publications

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  • Agriculture in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    ERR-176, October 28, 2014

    The proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership is expected to increase the value of intraregional agricultural trade by about 6 percent in 2025, and increase U.S. agricultural exports to the region by 5 percent, compared with the baseline.

  • Assigning Values to Life: Comparing Methods for Valuing Health Risks

    AER-784, December 01, 1999

    An examination of five approaches economists and health policy analysts have developed for evaluating policy affecting health and safety: cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay, cost-effectiveness analysis, risk-risk analysis, and health-health analysis. Also examines the theoretical basis and empirical application of each approach and investigates the influence that assumptions embedded in each approach have on policy guidance.

  • Avian Influenza Boosted Japan’s Imports of Dried Egg Products

    Amber Waves, December 01, 2011

    ERS analysis of the effects of the 2004 outbreak of avian influenza in Japan showed evidence of a willingness of Japanese consumers to substitute processed dried egg products for fresh shell eggs. These changes in preference affect U.S. exports of shell eggs and egg products.

  • Bacterial Foodborne Disease: Medical Costs and Productivity Losses

    AER-741, August 01, 1996

    Microbial pathogens in food cause an estimated 6.5-33 million cases of human illness and up to 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens, including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria, are believed to cause human illnesses. For six bacterial pathogens, the costs of human illness are estimated to be $9.3-$12.9 billion annually. Of these costs, $2.9-$6.7 billion are attributed to foodborne bacteria. These estimates were developed to provide analytical support for USDA's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems rule for meat and poultry. (Note that the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is not included in this report.) To estimate medical costs and productivity losses, ERS uses four severity categories for acute illnesses: those who did not visit a physician, visited a physician, were hospitalized, or died prematurely. The lifetime consequences of chronic disease are included in the cost estimates for E. coli O157:H7 and fetal listeriosis.

  • Beyond Nutrition and Organic Labels—30 Years of Experience With Intervening in Food Labels

    ERR-239, November 17, 2017

    ERS researchers examine five food label case studies that show the economic effects and tradeoffs involved in setting product standards, verifying claims, and enforcing truthfulness.

  • China's Dairy Supply and Demand

    LDPM-282-01, December 15, 2017

    The future of China's dairy supply depends on increased domestic production and greater trade for dairy. China's growing dairy production provides opportunities for U.S exports of alfalfa and other inputs.

  • Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery

    ERR-56, March 17, 2008

    Globalization and income growth are resulting in increasing similarities worldwide in food purchasing patterns and food delivery mechanisms.

  • Current Issues in Economics of Food Markets

    AIB-747, August 13, 2004

    These reports synthesize economic analyses of the complex relationships in food markets of interest to officials responsible for public policy, decisionmakers in the industry, and researchers. Topics addressed so far include the economizing practices of low-income households in making food purchases, the increasing vertical coordination and integration of the industry, the link between consolidation of retailers and orange juice prices, the effects of a higher minimum wage on food prices, how taxes affect food markets, and lessons learned from the use of rbST in dairy production.

  • Economic Effects of Animal Diseases Linked to Trade Dependency

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2006

    In the last decade, animal disease outbreaks have repeatedly disrupted meat trade. The economic effects of disease-related trade bans and consumption changes on an individual country depend on the size of its meat trade relative to domestic production or consumption as well as consumers' perceptions about potential risks to their own health. While production or consumption in some countries has declined significantly, at the global level meat trade has risen, despite the disease outbreaks.

  • Estimating the Effects of Selected Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade on U.S.-EU Agricultural Trade

    ERR-199, November 10, 2015

    Non-tariff measures (e.g., sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade) were found to be significant impediments to agriculture trade in selected commodities between the United States and the European Union.

  • FDA Refusals of Imported Food Products by Country and Category, 2005-2013

    EIB-151, March 28, 2016

    Of more than 140,000 FDA violations in food shipments for import in 2005-13, over half were for adulteration (safety, packaging integrity, or sanitation), and 41 percent for misbranding (e.g., misleading labels or those lacking English).

  • Food Safety Audits, Plant Characteristics, and Food Safety Technology Use in Meat and Poultry Plants

    EIB-82, October 03, 2011

    ERS documents the extent of food safety audits in meat and poultry processing plants and examines the association between the use of audits and the plants' size, business structure, and application of food safety technology

  • Food Safety Improvements Underway in China

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2006

    Adverse publicity about contaminated food incidents has prompted improved food safety programs in China for both the domestic and export market. This article reviews the challenges for Chinese food safety and government programs to improve standards. Only a small portion of Chinese production for the domestic market currently meets the new government standards for safer food. Producing safer food for export is expensive and reduces China's cost advantage in world markets.

  • Food Safety Innovation in the United States: Evidence from the Meat Industry

    AER-831, April 01, 2004

    Recent industry innovations improving the safety of the Nation's meat supply include new pathogen tests, high-tech equipment, supply chain management systems, and surveillance networks.

  • Food Safety Issues for Meat/Poultry Products and International Trade

    AIB-789-4, February 28, 2004

    This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in meat and poultry products can be affected by food safety concerns.

  • Food Safety and International Trade

    AIB-789-1, February 28, 2004

    This research brief presents some of the highlights of the ERS report, "International Trade and Food Safety: Economic Theory and Case Studies."

  • Food Safety and International Trade: Theoretical Issues

    AIB-789-2, February 28, 2004

    This research brief examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade.

  • Food Safety and Trade: Regulations, Risks, and Reconciliation

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2003

    Global food trade is expanding, providing consumers with access to a wider year-round variety of foods at lower prices. Trade expansion, however, has brought into sharper focus the divergence among countries’ food safety regulations and standards.

  • Imports From China and Food Safety Issues

    EIB-52, July 07, 2009

    Food imports from China more than tripled in value from 2001 to 2008. ERS indicates the types of foods imported, analyzes FDA refusals of shipments, and describes China's food safety regulation.

  • International Food Security Assessment, 2013-2023

    GFA-24, June 27, 2013

    The share of the population that is food insecure in 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to decline from 21 percent in 2012 to 20 percent in 2013. Key determinants of food security are food production and import capacity.