Publications

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  • Why Have Food Commodity Prices Risen Again?

    WRS-1103, June 28, 2011

    The report describes the factors that have contributed to the large and rapid increase in agricultural prices during the past year. The report focuses particularly on food commodity prices-which have risen 60 percent since June 2010.

  • What’s Behind the Surge in Global Rice Prices?

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2008

    U.S. and global rice prices surged to record highs this spring. The rapid price increases were not due to poor harvests, a surge in demand, or a tight global supply situation, but were linked to factors not directly related to rice market fundamentals. The most important factors behind the price surge were export bans, restrictions, and taxes implemented by several major exporting countries in an attempt to assure stable prices for food staples.

  • Vietnam's Agri-Food Sector and the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    EIB-130, October 28, 2014

    Vietnam's agricultural trade gains from TPP may be limited. The United States and Japan are expected to be the primary markets for agricultural export growth. Vietnam's consumer-oriented sectors provide the largest areas for import growth.

  • Valuing Counter-Cyclical Payments: Implications for Producer Risk Management and Program Administration

    ERR-39, February 22, 2007

    Counter-cyclical payments supplement incomes of eligible producers enrolled in commodity programs. ERS developed a computer program that improved upon USDA's method of estimating payment rates and that producers and forecasters can use.

  • USDA Agricultural Projections to 2016

    OCE-2007-1, February 14, 2007

    This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2016. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.

  • U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present, and Possible Future

    Amber Waves, August 03, 2015

    In December 2014, the United States announced that it would implement executive actions designed to ease the restrictions on trade, remittances, and travel with Cuba. This report explores the potential implications for U.S. agricultural exports. Establishment of a more normal economic relationship with Cuba has the potential to foster additional growth in U.S.-Cuba agricultural trade.

  • U.S.-Cuba Agricultural Trade: Past, Present and Possible Future

    AES-87, June 17, 2015

    Establishing more normal economic relations with Cuba could potentially generate growth in U.S.-Cuba trade, foster greater productivity in Cuba's economy, and stimulate exports of meat, dairy products, rice, and other commodities to Cuba.

  • U.S. Food Import Patterns, 1998-2007

    FAU-125, August 06, 2009

    Using import data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines patterns of U.S. food imports for fiscal years 1998-2007. Results indicate faster import growth trends for consumer-ready foods, such as fruit, vegetables, meats, seafood, and processed food products. Although the United States imported most bulk food commodities and perishable consumer-ready products, such as fruit and vegetables, from neighboring countries in the Western Hemisphere, it imported processed foods, spices, and other tropical products from more global sources, with rising import shares for many countries in Asia.

  • U.S. Agricultural Trade Update-State Exports

    FAU-123, June 29, 2007

    U.S. agricultural exports reached a record in fiscal 2006 at $68.7 billion, some $6.2 billion higher than the record set in fiscal 2005. California, Iowa, Texas, and Illinois continued their reign as top exporting States, while Minnesota dropped to seventh position behind Nebraska and Kansas. North Carolina joined the top 10, displacing North Dakota at the number nine position. Feed grain exports moved ahead of soybean exports, with Iowa and Illinois dominating in those markets. California continued to dominate vegetables, fruits, tree nuts, seeds, and dairy.

  • The Rice Market in South Korea

    RCS-161-01, September 16, 2016

    The report reviews this important market for U.S. rice with regard to the new tariff-rate quota, production policies, and internal Korean supply and demand.

  • The Impact of Migration on China’s Rice Production

    Amber Waves, May 05, 2014

    Migration’s farm production impacts in China appear to be slight, not on account of farm labor market perfections or remittance-financed technological improvements, but by substituting a reduction in leisure and other low-return activities for lost labor.

  • The Changing Face of the U.S. Grain System

    ERR-35, February 28, 2007

    Specialty grains coming onto the market (e.g., fiber-enriched wheat) are requiring adjustments in the marketing system, including information documentation and management, in order to preserve their added value or prevent accidental commingling with standard grains.

  • The 2002 Farm Bill: Provisions and Economic Implications

    AP-022, January 23, 2008

    The Farm Security Act of 2002, which governs Federal farm programs for 2002-07, was signed into law on May 13, 2002. This publication presents an overview of the Act and a side-by-side comparison of 1996-2001 farm legislation and the 2002 Act. For selected programs, information is provided to additional analyses of key changes, program overview, and economic implications.

  • Southeast Asia's Rice Surplus

    RCS-12L-01, December 31, 2012

    Southeast Asia dominates the world's rice trade as the leading source of rice exports and the second-largest importing region. This region's rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade and the USDA projects that it will remain large over the next decade.

  • Southeast Asia Projected To Remain Top Rice Exporter

    Amber Waves, February 21, 2013

    The growth rates of both production and consumption of rice in the Southeast Asia region have been slowing. Still, the large surplus of production over regional demand in Southeast Asia is likely to continue to expand for the next decade.

  • Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture

    ERR-115, April 15, 2011

    ERS examines possible impacts of recently implemented free trade agreements (FTAs) where the United States is not a partner, and potential effects of pending U.S. agreements with Korea, Colombia, and Panama.

  • Rough Rice Exports Critical to U.S. Rice Producers

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2007

    The U.S. is the fourth largest exporter of rice, but an ever larger share of U.S. rice exports are rough, or unmilled, rice. The main markets are Mexico and Central America, which import rough rice because tariffs are lower than for milled rice. But the U.S. rice sector could be threatened by rising energy costs and reductions of support for U.S. rice producers.

  • Rice: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation

    AER-713, April 03, 1995

    This report address considerations in the 1995 farm bill debate for rice, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. U.S. rice sector income has shown steady growth in recent years, reaching $2.1 billion in 1993/94. However, Government program payments have also grown in importance. Since 1985/86, rice program outlays have averaged $733 million per year, 42 percent of all returns from rice farming. Farm and industry economic health are linked to costs of production which vary significantly across the six rice-producing regions. Because of inflation in the cost of production since the early 1980s, frozen payment yields, reduced target prices, and continued reductions in farm program benefits due to budgetary pressures, some rice farmers have been operating at a loss. Any reductions in current rice program support levels would probably accelerate the trends of a declining number of U.S. rice farms, increasing farm size, and a shift of rice growing from the high-cost production regions along the gulf coast to the upper Delta States, while reducing both the participation rate and dependency on government program revenue.

  • Rice: Background for 1990 Farm Legislation

    AGES-8949, November 01, 1989

    This report address considerations in the 1990 farm bill debate for rice, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. Rice ranks ninth among major U.S. field crops in terms of value of production. All U.S. rice production is irrigated, providing more stable yields than many other crops. Three classes of rice are produced in the United States-long, medium, and short grain-with long grain predominant. Domestic use and exports of U.S. rice have increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of the marketing loan program in the mid-1980s following declines in both domestic use and exports in the early 1980s. As a result, carryover stocks have declined from a record high of 77.3 million cwt in 1985/86 to 32.4 million cwt in 1988/89. Costs of rice programs, however, rose to an estimated record $1 billion in fiscal year 1989 due to marketing loan costs and increased deficiency payments. Rice growers in the southern rice growing States are rapidly adopting high-yielding, semidwarf varieties of long-grain rice which could raise U.S. production. Rice issues facing farm legislators relate to rising production capacity, stagnant world trade, multilateral trade negotiations, high costs of marketing loans and other rice programs, loan rate differentials between long and medium/short grains, and adjusting the world price formula to further enhance U.S. competitiveness in the world rice market.

  • Rice Outlook: September 2017

    RCS-17I, September 14, 2017

    The September 2017 Rice Outlook Report will contain updated U.S. and global rice market forecasts for 2016/17 and 2017/18.