Publications

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  • A Bigger Piece of the Pie: Exports Rising in Share of U.S. Apple Production

    Amber Waves, July 05, 2016

    The domestic market consumes most U.S. fresh-market apples, but export markets have grown in importance for apple growers over the past several decades. U.S. exports of fresh apples have increased steadily during the period, with their share of U.S. production climbing from 14 percent in the mid-1980s to about 28 percent over the last 5 years.

  • Agriculture in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    ERR-176, October 28, 2014

    The proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership is expected to increase the value of intraregional agricultural trade by about 6 percent in 2025, and increase U.S. agricultural exports to the region by 5 percent, compared with the baseline.

  • California’s Irrigation Varies by Crop

    Amber Waves, July 06, 2015

    Farmers in California grow a wide variety of crops using off-farm surface water, groundwater, and to a limited extent, on-farm surface water. Differences in the source of irrigation water play a major role in how vulnerable different crops are to shortfalls in surface water supplies due to drought. Farmers of different crops also have differing levels of investment in irrigation technologies.

  • Canned Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in the United States: A Report to the United States Congress

    AP-032, September 12, 2008

    In response to Senate Report 110-134, accompanying S. 1859, the 2008 the Agriculture Appropriations Bill, ERS researchers published a report about consumer perceptions and consumption of canned fruits and vegetables using USDA's food consumption survey data, Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Survey data, and the ERS Food Availability Data System. If current trends prevail, total fruit and vegetable availability will continue to increase but canned fruits and vegetables will account for a declining share of that total. However, there are several divergent and offsetting forces that make it difficult to predict the future demand for canned produce.

  • Canned Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in the United States: An Updated Report to Congress

    AP-050, November 10, 2010

    The Senate Report 111-039 accompanying S. 1406, the 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Bill, requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) prepare and publish a report regarding consumer perceptions of canned fruits and vegetables. In the absence of consumer surveys, the report relies on consumption and spending estimates to reveal attitudes of the U.S. population toward canned produce. This report updates Canned Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in the United States: Report to Congress (October 2008), using more recent data through 2008, where available.

  • Changes in Retail Organic Price Premiums from 2004 to 2010

    ERR-209, May 24, 2016

    Of 17 organic food products ERS analyzed, most retail price premiums fluctuated between 2004 and 2010, neither increasing nor decreasing steadily. Only three products-fresh spinach, canned beans, and coffee-showed steady premium decreases.

  • Changes to the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program Under the Agricultural Act of 2014: Their Potential Risk Reduction Impacts

    EIB-172, May 25, 2017

    ERS researchers find that the new NAP Buy-Up coverage can mitigate low-yield risk more than the NAP Basic and slightly increase a farmer's revenue

  • Characteristics of Conventional and Organic Apple Production in the United States

    FTS-34701, July 25, 2011

    This report uses data from USDA's 2007 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) and other sources to examine trends in the U.S. apple sector and compare production and marketing characteristics under organic and conventional farming systems.

  • Characteristics of U.S. Orange Consumption

    FTS-30501, August 01, 2003

    U.S. per capita consumption of oranges has grown slowly since the 1960s, although the orange remains the number one fruit consumed (total fresh and processed uses). Consumption patterns appear to vary by demographic and economic characteristics. Northeast consumers show the strongest preference for orange juice, and those in the West for fresh oranges compared with consumers elsewhere. Consumers in the Midwest and the South consume less of all orange products. Hispanics and people of "other" races (including Asians) have the highest orange consumption of all racial/ethnic groups. Consumers classified as high-income favor orange juice, while those in the low-income group have the highest per capita consumption of orange drink. Males consume a greater share of all orange products than females.

  • China's Rising Fruit and Vegetable Exports Challenge U.S. Industries

    FTS-32001, February 14, 2006

    China has raised its profile in global fruit and vegetable markets, with the value of its exports during 2002-04 more than double the value from a decade earlier. Most of China's exports are processed fruits and vegetables that do not yet pose a serious challenge to U.S. exports. However, China's fresh vegetable sales to Japan and other Asian markets compete directly with U.S. products. In addition, the United States has been the largest market for China's apple juice exports. Over time, China's growing domestic market may absorb more of its production. Moreover, China faces stiff challenges in improving the quality and safety of its products, upgrading its marketing and distribution infrastructure, and reducing marketing costs.

  • Country-of-Origin Labeling: Theory and Observation

    WRS-0402, January 23, 2004

    This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, food suppliers have generally not emphasized, advertised, or labeled food with U.S. country of origin. The infrequency of "Made in USA" labels on food suggests suppliers do not believe domestic origin is an attribute that can attract much consumer interest. We find little evidence that suppliers would have difficulty supplying such labels if there were sufficient consumer interest.

  • Cuba's Citrus Industry: Growth and Change

    FTS-30901, April 30, 2004

    Cuban citrus is a major commercial crop and foreign exchange earner. The 1990s saw an industry collapse and a shift from fresh oranges to processed citrus products and grapefruit production. If commercial relationships with the United States were restored, Cuba's citrus industry would likely look to U.S. markets for new opportunities for Cuban fresh citrus, processed citrus products, and citrus byproducts. In turn, Cuba's citrus industry could become a market for U.S. exports of technology, citrus rootstock and other inputs, and capital. New U.S.-Cuban partnerships could develop to partially integrate citrus production, processing, and marketing for U.S. markets.

  • Cuba's Tropical Fruit Industry

    FTS-30902, April 09, 2004

    Cuba's tropical fruit industry primarily caters to domestic markets with fresh fruits that are Cuban diet staples. Plantains and bananas account for over 70 percent of production. Tropical fruit production fell with Cuba's collapsing economy in the early 1990s. With ideal climate and land resources, production potential remains high. Production and demand will both recover and grow as Cuba's economy recovers. If commercial relationships with the United States were restored, Cuba could initially look to U.S. sources for quality tropical fruits for Cuba's growing tourist market. Eventually, as Cuba's economy and its tropical fruit sector recover, the United States could provide new market opportunities for an increasingly competitive Cuban tropical fruit sector.

  • Declining Orange Consumption in Japan: Generational Changes or Something Else?

    ERR-71, February 05, 2009

    The aging of Japan's population only partially explains the downward trend in orange consumption, and the negative trend could continue.

  • Dietary Assessment of Major Trends in U.S. Food Consumption, 1970-2005

    EIB-33, March 28, 2008

    ERS investigates trends in U.S. food consumption from 1970 to 2005. Results suggest many Americans still fall short of Federal dietary recommendations for whole grains, lower fat dairy products, and fruits and vegetables.

  • Eliminating Fruit and Vegetable Planting Restrictions: How Would Markets Be Affected?

    ERR-30, November 08, 2006

    Participants in U.S. farm programs are restricted from planting and harvesting wild rice, fruit, and most vegetables (nonprogram crops) on acreage historically used for program crops (known as base acreage). However, a recent World Trade Organization challenge to U.S. programs has created pressure to eliminate planting restrictions. Although eliminating restrictions would not lead to substantial market impacts for most fruit or vegetables, the effects on individual producers could be significant. Some producers who are already producing fruit and vegetables could find that it is no longer profitable, while others could profitably move into producing these crops. Producers with base acreage are the most likely to benefit because they would no longer face payment reductions.

  • Emerging Issues in the U.S. Organic Industry

    EIB-55, June 03, 2009

    Consumer demand for organic products has widened over the last decade. While new producers have emerged to help meet demand, market participants report that a supply squeeze is constraining growth for both individual firms and the organic sector overall. Partly in response to shortages in organic supply, Congress in 2008 included provisions in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act (2008 Farm Act) that, for the first time, provide financial support to farmers to convert to organic production. This report examines recent economic research on the adoption of organic farming systems, organic production costs and returns, and market conditions to gain a better understanding of the organic supply squeeze and other emerging issues in this rapidly changing industry.

  • European Trading Arrangements in Fruits and Vegetables

    VGS-303-01, July 01, 2004

    The European Union (EU) participates in regional and preferential trading arrangements more than any other country or region. Over 70 percent of EU fruit and vegetable imports are from countries benefiting from preferential treatment for some portion of that trade. The most valuable preferences are accorded the 42 least developed countries, while 77 former colonies of EU countries also receive important preferences. The EU's many preferential agreements create a mosaic of tariffs, quotas, and other import restrictions that vary considerably among products and among preferred partners which makes analysis impossibly complex. Exports from countries without preferences, including the United States, are at a disadvantage in EU markets.

  • Evolving U.S. Fruit Markets and Seasonal Grower Price Patterns

    FTS-357-01, September 29, 2014

    ERS analyzes seasonal patterns in grower prices for several major U.S. fresh fruits markets. Strawberries, grapes, and peaches all have distinct seasonal price patterns. In several cases, the timing of high and low prices has shifted.

  • Food Safety Practices and Costs Under the California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement

    EIB-173, June 07, 2017

    Interviews with firms participating in an existing food safety program, California's Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement, offer insights into what the recent FSMA Produce Rule will mean for the U.S. produce industry.