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  • Provisions of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981

    AGES-811228, January 01, 1982

    Commodity program provisions of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 are summarized. Price support, loan level, disaster payment, program acreage, and other provisions of the legislation are discussed for wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, peanuts, soybeans, sugar, dairy, and wool and mohair. The following provisions are also summarized: miscellaneous; grain reserves; the national agricultural cost of production standards review board; agricultural exports and P.L. 480; food stamps; research, extension, and teaching; resource conservation; credit, rural development, and family farms; and floral research and consumer information.

  • Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985

    AIB-498, April 01, 1986

    The Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198) establishes a comprehensive framework within which the Secretary of Agriculture will administer agriculture and food programs from 1986 through 1990. This report describes the Act's provisions for dairy, wool and mohair, wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, peanuts, soybeans, and sugar (including income and price supports, disaster payments, and acreage reductions); other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; research, extension, and teaching; food stamps; and marketings. These provisions are compared with earlier legislation.

  • Cotton: Background for 1990 Farm Legislation

    AGES-8942, September 01, 1989

    This report address considerations in the 1990 farm bill debate for cotton, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. Government programs since the 1930s have supported prices and attempted to adjust cotton acreage and production to meet market needs, with varying degrees of success. The Food Security Act of 1985 is generally considered successful in dealing with the cotton sector despite several problems. The marketing loan provisions of the act helped make cotton competitive in 1987 and some world market share was won back by U.S. cotton. However, in 1988-89, problems with the adjusted world price formula and with the storage terms resulted in owners of cotton holding stocks rather than releasing them to the market even though U.S. stocks were high.

  • Cotton: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation

    AER-706, April 03, 1995

    This report address considerations in the 1995 farm bill debate for cotton, including market conditions, policy proposals, trade agreements, and the interactions between policy and markets for selected commodities. The Food Security Act of 1985, and subsequent cotton marketing loan modifications, are analyzed, as they formed the basic provisions of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Cotton provisions of the 1990 Act attempted to ensure that cotton remained competitive in domestic and world markets. Program performance is discussed, including the effects on producers, consumers, and taxpayers. Important issues and policy options to be addressed during the 1995 farm bill debates are presented. Background information is also provided on the characteristics of the U.S. cotton industry including current trends in production, consumption, and foreign trade. Financial aspects of the cotton sector including prices, costs, and producer returns give additional perspective and understanding to the report.

  • The Cotton Industry In The United States

    AER-739, July 01, 1996

    The United States produces nearly 20 percent of the world's cotton and ranks second to China as the largest producing country. While over 80 countries produce cotton, the United States, China, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan (former Soviet republic) produce about 74 percent of the total world cotton supply.

  • Cotton: Background and Issues for Farm Legislation

    CWS-0601-01, August 01, 2001

    Since passage of the 1996 farm legislation, U.S. cotton production and demand have nearly equaled each other, keeping stocks virtually unchanged. However, U.S. cotton producers have experienced deteriorating product prices coupled with declining yields during this period. Farm prices for upland cotton dropped 40 percent from their recent peak in 1995/96 to 45 cents per pound in 1999/2000, prompting considerable concern for the industry as the new farm legislation debate develops.

  • Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cotton Farms

    SB-974-2, October 26, 2001

    Producing a pound of cotton cost U.S. farmers 38 cents in operating costs and another 35 cents in overhead costs in 1997, the latest survey year. Individual farm costs ranged from 18 cents to $1.97 per pound for operating costs and from 28 cents to $2.96 per pound for total costs. The Prairie Gateway had the largest proportion of cotton farms while the largest cotton farms and the largest share of cotton production were in the Fruitful Rim.

  • The Forces Shaping World Cotton Consumption After the Multifiber Arrangement

    CWS-05C-01, April 15, 2005

    The phaseout of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) and other forces are reshaping world textile and cotton markets. The elimination of the MFA is helping reduce clothing prices in the United States and the EU and effecting a shift in industrial demand for cotton to China, India, and Pakistan. At the same time, world cotton consumption has accelerated along with economic growth since 1999, especially in developing Asia, where an emerging consumer society is driving increases in household consumption of clothing and other cotton products. In the long run, income growth and technical change have more of an effect on world cotton consumption than the elimination of the MFA.

  • China's Agricultural Imports Boomed During 2003-04

    WRS-0504, May 06, 2005

    China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth in U.S. exports of soybeans, cotton, and wheat. China was the fourth-largest overseas market for U.S. farmers during 2004, accounting for 9 percent of U.S. agricultural exports. China's agricultural exports continued to climb as well, but at a rate slower than its growth in imports. The outlook for Chinese imports is favorable due to strong economic growth and continued liberalization of the economy.

  • Growth Prospects for India's Cotton and Textile Industries

    CWS-05D01, June 02, 2005

    India's prospects are changing now that the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) no longer governs world textile trade. Decades of industrial policies that were both inward-oriented and biased toward small-scale production continue to influence India's textile trade prospects. While the recent introduction of genetically-modified (Bt) cotton has revitalized prospects for cotton production, quality issues are likely to hamper Indian cotton sales until the structure of India's cotton marketing system changes significantly.

  • Behind the Data: Estimating the Raw-Fiber Equivalent of U.S. Cotton Textile and Apparel Imports

    Amber Waves, September 01, 2005

    The data behind the ERS raw-fiber equivalent estimates come from product-specific shipment volumes collected by the U.S. Department of Commerce. More than 3,000 different textile and apparel products containing cotton are imported by the U.S. annually and are converted to raw-fiber equivalents using factors developed by ERS.

  • Indian Cotton Yield Gains Could Limit Imports

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2005

    Bt Cotton hybrids were first approved for India in 2002, and in 2005 Bt cotton varieties accounted for 17 percent of India’s cotton area. Yields have grown by 45-87 percent as a result of the new technology. The result could be a decline in import demand.

  • USDA Agricultural Projections to 2016

    OCE-2007-1, February 14, 2007

    This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2016. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.

  • NAFTA at 13: Implementation Nears Completion

    WRS-0701, March 29, 2007

    Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is drawing to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA's transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade will be removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically dismantled numerous barriers to regional agricultural trade. During the implementation period, the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. Agricultural trade within the free-trade area has grown dramatically, and Canadian and Mexican industries that rely on U.S. agricultural inputs have expanded. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importance of Canadian and Mexican produce to U.S. fruit and vegetable consumption is growing.

  • Cotton Backgrounder

    CWS-07B01, March 30, 2007

    U.S. cotton growers, like producers of other agricultural commodities in recent years, have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, the ending of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) sent a ripple effect throughout the global cotton industry. While adjustments in the textile and apparel sectors of many countries, including the United States, continue to evolve, dramatic changes have already been seen for some. World cotton mill use has accelerated along with economic growth since 1999, particularly in China, and U.S. cotton producers have benefited as foreign import demand has reached new heights. Government payments contribute a considerable portion of total revenue to the cotton sector, and adjustments to this program or any other commodity program in the 2007 farm legislation will be driven by factors such as domestic market conditions, multilateral trade negotiations, and the Federal budget deficit.

  • A New World for U.S. Cotton Producers

    Amber Waves, April 01, 2007

    The end of the MFA has brought a decline in U.S. textile production and domestic demand for U.S. cotton with the result that the U.S. cotton sector has become increasingly export dependent. The sector has been helped by yield enhancing technological advances, but U.S. cotton also faces increasing competition from abroad. An ongoing WTO dispute and possible changes in U.S. farm legislation mean further uncertainty for the sector.

  • Ethanol Expansion in the United States: How Will the Agricultural Sector Adjust?

    FDS-07D-01, May 18, 2007

    A large expansion in ethanol production is underway in the United States. Cellulosic sources of feedstocks for ethanol production hold some promise for the future, but the primary feedstock in the United States currently is corn. Market adjustments to this increased demand extend well beyond the corn sector to supply and demand for other crops, such as soybeans and cotton, as well as to U.S. livestock industries. USDA's long-term projections, augmented by farmers' planting intentions for 2007, are used to illustrate anticipated changes in the agricultural sector.

  • China's Cotton Supply and Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market

    CWS-07I-01, November 06, 2007

    USDA has developed a new approach for estimating cotton consumption in China based on textile import and export data, supplementing the traditional methodology that uses yarn production data from China's National Bureau of Statistics. This analysis suggests USDA's historical estimates of China's cotton consumption are reasonable and USDA's August 2007 forecast may be conservative. These insights into the amount of cotton consumed by China's textile mills, combined with data on China's cotton exports and imports, suggest there may be problems with the official estimates of China's cotton production. Uncertainties regarding the level of production and consumption of cotton in China mean that the potential remains for unexpected changes in China's cotton import demand that could destabilize world commodity markets despite increased global communication. These unexpected changes highlight China's impact on world cotton markets and the lack of transparency in China's intervention in its domestic cotton markets and official cotton stock accumulation.

  • The 2002 Farm Bill: Provisions and Economic Implications

    AP-022, January 23, 2008

    The Farm Security Act of 2002, which governs Federal farm programs for 2002-07, was signed into law on May 13, 2002. This publication presents an overview of the Act and a side-by-side comparison of 1996-2001 farm legislation and the 2002 Act. For selected programs, information is provided to additional analyses of key changes, program overview, and economic implications.

  • Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in U.S. Fertilizer Prices, 2002-08

    AR-33, February 13, 2009

    U.S. prices of fertilizer nutrients began to rise steadily in 2002 and increased sharply to historic highs in 2008 due to the combined effects of a number of domestic and global long- and shortrun supply and demand factors. From 2007 to 2008, spring nitrogen prices increased by a third, phosphate prices nearly doubled, and potash prices doubled. The price spike in 2008 reflects low inventories at the beginning of 2008 combined with the inability of the U.S. fertilizer industry to quickly adjust to surging demand or sharp declines in international supply. Declining fertilizer demand, disruption in fall applications, increased fertilizer imports (July to August), and tightening credit markets for fertilizer purchases contributed to the decline of fertilizer prices in late 2008. The prospect for strong fertilizer demand in early 2009, high raw material costs for the manufacture of fertilizers, production cutbacks, and decreasing supplies from fertilizer imports, however, could put upward pressure on U.S. fertilizer prices in spring 2009.