Publications

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  • Productivity Growth and the Revival of Russian Agriculture

    ERR-228, April 25, 2017

    Russia’s southern district spurred national agricultural recovery due to competitive advantages. Other districts without such advantages have lagged behind.

  • Agricultural Recovery in Russia and the Rise of Its South

    Amber Waves, April 25, 2017

    National productivity growth in Russian agriculture is largely an outcome of activities in the South, which is exploiting relative geographic, infrastructural, and institutional advantages to spearhead the country’s agricultural improvements.

  • Changing Crop Area in the Former Soviet Union Region

    FDS-17B-01, February 21, 2017

    Total crop area fell substantially in Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan during the 1990's. Though area has rebounded somewhat in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, it is still far below the levels of the late Soviet period in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  • Rising Russian Meat Production Reduces Imports

    Amber Waves, October 05, 2015

    During its transition from a planned to a market economy that began in the early 1990’s, Russia has been a large importer of meat. By the early 2000's, the country had become the largest foreign market for U.S. poultry broilers. However, in 2009 Russian meat imports began to fall, including from the United States, with the import decline coinciding with growth in domestic meat production.

  • Alternative Policies to Agricultural Export Taxes That Are Less Market Distorting

    ERR-187, June 09, 2015

    ERS examines effects of alternative policies to conventional export taxes on countries' domestic and trade markets for agricultural products -- policies that are less market distorting and less welfare diminishing.

  • Assessing the Growth of U.S. Broiler and Poultry Meat Exports

    LDPM-23101, November 08, 2013

    The United States is the world's second largest broiler meat exporter, and exports are a valuable source of income for the industry. ERS examines factors affecting the growth in broiler meat exports, focusing on several major markets.

  • Rising Grain Exports by the Former Soviet Union Region

    WHS-13A01, February 04, 2013

    The three major grain-producing countries of the former Soviet Union--Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine--have become a large grain-exporting region. This report examines the causes and provides the 10-year outlook for the region's exports.

  • Former Soviet Union Region To Play Larger Role in Meeting World Wheat Needs

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2010

    The next decade is likely to see a major shift in global wheat production and trade. USDA projects that wheat exports by Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan will increase by 50 percent by 2019, and the region could lead the world in wheat exports by the end of the period.

  • The Transmission of Exchange Rate Changes to Agricultural Prices

    ERR-76, July 15, 2009

    ERS addresses the two main reasons for incomplete transmission of exchange rate changes to a country's domestic agricultural prices: namely, restrictive trade policies and poor market conditions.

  • Russia’s Surge in Agricultural Imports Comes to a Halt

    Amber Waves, June 01, 2009

    Russia's agricultural imports surged from $6 to $26 billion between 2000 and 2007. This increase came about as a result of high income growth and a strong Russian ruble, which made imports cheaper than domestically produced goods. The ongoing financial crisis will likely bring a decline in Russia's imports during 2009, but import growth is likely to resume once Russia's economy stabilizes.

  • Russia's Growing Agricultural Imports: Causes and Outlook

    WRS-09-04, May 15, 2009

    During the 2000s, Russian agricultural imports have grown considerably, from $7 billion in 2000 to $33 billion in 2008. This import growth has made Russia the second largest agricultural importer among emerging markets, after China. The main reasons for the import rise are macroeconomic-high growth in Russian gross domestic product, which increases consumer income and purchasing power, and real appreciation of the ruble, which makes imports less expensive vis-a-vis domestically produced goods. The economic crisis that hit Russia (and the world) in autumn 2008 makes the outlook for Russia's agricultural imports uncertain in the short term. However, the Russian economy is expected to stabilize within a year or two, at which time agricultural imports should continue to grow, although at a lower rate than in past years.

  • The 2008/2009 World Economic Crisis: What It Means for U.S. Agriculture

    WRS-09-02, March 30, 2009

    The world economic crisis that began in 2008 has major consequences for U.S. agriculture. The weakening of global demand because of emerging recessions and declining economic growth result in reduced export demand and lower agricultural commodity prices, compared with those in 2008. These, in turn, reduce U.S. farm income and place downward pressures on farm real estate values. So far, the overall impact on U.S. agriculture is not as severe as on the broader U.S. economy because the record-high agricultural exports, prices, and farm income in 2007 and 2008 put U.S. farmers on solid financial ground. Moreover, the debt equity ratios in agriculture tend to be more conservative than those in most other sectors of the economy. There is much uncertainty concerning the depth and extent of the crisis. The outcomes for U.S. agriculture are dependent on whether or not there is a global realignment of exchange rates to correct current macroeconomic imbalances.

  • Weaker Dollar Strengthens U.S. Agriculture

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2007

    The depreciation of the U.S. dollar has increased the competitive advantage of U.S. agriculture and stimulated export demand for U.S. agricultural products. Strong economic growth in developing countries also has contributed to strong U.S. agricultural export performance. Despite depreciating against currencies of some U.S. trading partners, the dollar has been largely fixed against currencies of others, such as China, reducing potential gains in competitiveness. Trade policies and imperfect markets can also reduce the effects of depreciation, further diminishing the gain.

  • Grain Exports from the Black Sea: How Large?

    Amber Waves, November 01, 2004

    When the countries of the Former Soviet Union began their path towards market reform, many researchers expected these countries to become large net grain exporters. For most of the 1990s, however, this did not happen. Russia and Ukraine exported large amounts of wheat in 2001 and 2002, but then suffered a much reduced crop in 2003. ERS researchers, however, estimate that in the coming decade the Black Sea countries could become moderately large exporters if they are able to introduce successful market reforms.

  • Black Sea Grain Exports: Will They Be Moderate or Large?

    WRS-04-05-02, October 12, 2004

    This report examines the prospects for grain exports by the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States (NIS) that export through the Black Sea, the largest being Russia and Ukraine. If productivity growth in the region is high, annual grain exports by Black Sea countries could rise to 30-40 million tons. Such high exports would strongly affect the world grain market, since total annual world grain exports during 2000-03 averaged 237 million metric tons. This report is the second in a two-part series on the integration of CEE and NIS countries into global commodity markets.

  • Food Security Assessment, GFA-15

    GFA-15, May 20, 2004

    Just over 900 million people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2003. This marks a decline from more than 1 billion in 2002. Although food security is expected to improve in all regions over the coming decade, this improvement will vary. Food security is projected to improve most significantly in Asia, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Although some improvement is also expected in Sub-Saharan Africa, the deep poverty at the root of hunger problems in the lower income population will remain unchanged. Food aid has been and continues to be an important tool used by the international community to fight hunger in low-income countries, and the United States is the dominant food donor country. However, the effectiveness of food aid could be improved by increased coordination between donor groups, more transparent eligibility criteria, and fewer fluctuations in year-to-year aid levels.

  • Russia Changes Global Market for Livestock Products

    Amber Waves, February 01, 2004

    Despite a sharp drop in meat consumption during Russia's transition to a market economy, the 1990s saw a dramatic rise in U.S. exports of poultry meat to Russia. However, in the spring of 2003 Russia imposed an import quota on poultry meat, which at least in the short run will reduce U.S. export prospects.

  • Changes in Agricultural Markets in Transition Economies

    AER-806, March 01, 2002

    The report examines how economic reform in the transition countries of the former Soviet bloc has transformed the volume and mix of these countries' agricultural production, consumption, and trade. The report concludes that output decline has been an inevitable part of market reform and that the main goal of agricultural policy in the transition countries should not be to return output to pre-reform levels but rather to increase the productivity of input use.